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Mireille Besson Equipe Langage, Musique et Motricité Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée CNRS- Université de la Méditerranée U2 Neuroscience.

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Presentation on theme: "Mireille Besson Equipe Langage, Musique et Motricité Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée CNRS- Université de la Méditerranée U2 Neuroscience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mireille Besson Equipe Langage, Musique et Motricité Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée CNRS- Université de la Méditerranée U2 Neuroscience cognitives et apprentissage CNRS – INRP Lyon, Mars, 2006 Programme « Ecole et Sciences Cognitives » IFMR

2 Influence of musical expertise Morphological and functional differences in the brain of musicians and non-musicians: Heschls gyrus, secondary auditory cortex, BA47, corpus callosum, planum temporale (Elbert et al, 1995; Gaser et al, 2003; Koelsch et al., 2002; Onishi et al, 2001; Schlaug et al, 1995; Pantev et al, 1998; Schneider et al, 2002; Vuust et al, 2005, …) Specificity ? Common networks are activated in tasks that were first thought to involve specialized brain areas and mechanisms (e.g., Posner & Rothbart, 2005) Common networks for music and language (Maess et al, 2001; Meyer et al, 2002; Tzourio et al, 1997; Zatorre et al, 2002, …) Musical expertise influences the anatomo-functional organization of brain regions that are not necessarily specific to music

3 Transfer of learning ? Musical training may favor positive transfers to other cognitive domains Behavioral level (increase in performance): mathematics (Costa-Giomi, 1999; Garinder et al 1996), symbolic and spatio-temporal reasoning (Rauscher et al, 1997), visuo-spatial abilities (Brochard et l, 2004), verbal memory ( Chan et al, 1998), general intelligence (Schellenberg, 2004) However, several factors (differences between groups, motivation, arousal, …) were often not controlled in these experiments (Schellenberg, 2001) few studies aimed at testing specific hypotheses regarding the causal links underlying these effects (Thompson et al 2004) Musical training, by increasing pitch perception, will facilitate prosodic processing in language (Thompson et al, 2003; 2004) Event-Related brain Potential method

4 Emotional function : express hapiness, anger, fear, … Emotional function : express hapiness, anger, fear, … (Schirmer et al, 2001; Kotz et al, 2003, … ) Linguistic function : focus, modality, segmentation, … through word stress, pauses, intonation, … through word stress, pauses, intonation, … (Astesano et al, 2003; Böcker et al, 1999; Eckstein & Friederici, 2005; Friedrich et al, 2004; Magne et al, 2005; Meyer et al, 2000; Steinhauer et al, 1999; …) Acoustic parameters: Fundamental frequency / Pitch Rhythm / Meter Rhythm / Meter Intensity Intensity Spectral characteristics Spectral characteristics Same as music language specificity ? Same as music language specificity ? Comparison language - music Comparison language - music

5 Outline oInfluence of musical expertise on pitch/F0 processing in language In adults (Schön, Magne & Besson, Psychophysiology, 2004) In children (Magne, Schön & Besson, Jal of Cog. Neurosc., 2006) oInfluence of musical training on pitch/F0 processing in language 8 weeks of training (Moreno & Besson, 2006) 6 months of training (Moreno, Marquez, dos Santos, Castro & Besson, in prep.) oPitch processing in dyslexic children Detection of strong F0 violations in language impaired in dyslexics (dos Santos, Moreno, Habib & Besson, in press)

6 EEG acquisition + % errors Participants: Adults: 9 musicians et 9 non-musicians Children: 10 musicians et 10 non-musicians Age: 7-9 yr (average: 8) Task : is last note / word strange ? Protocol Time course : | Melody/Sentence |Last Note/Word | XXXX | ms | *------| | |- … Next trial Marqueur

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9 + 1/5 tone + + 1/2 tone 120 musical phrases : Example Parametric pitch manipulation Hypothesis: Congruous: Musicians = Non-musicians Strong incongruity : Musicians = Non-musicians Weak incongruity: Musicians > Non-musicians

10 + 35% + 120% 120 linguistic phrases from childrens books: Example La fillette assise par terre feuilletait un livre dimage image Parametric pitch manipulation (F0) Hypothesis: If transfer of training, then Congruous: Musicians = Non-musicians Strong incongruity : Musicians = Non-musicians Weak incongruity: Musicians > Non-musicians

11 0 3 Music Language OK Weak Strong Musiciens Non-musiciens OK Weak Strong * * * * Adults Children Error rate Musician adults and children detect weak pitch violations better than non musician not only in music but also in language (Schön et al, 2004; Magne et al, 2006)

12 Adults MusiciansNon-musicians OK Weak Strong Language (Cz) Music (Cz) -7 µV (Schön, Magne & Besson, Psychophysiology, 2004) 500 ms

13 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Music Congruous -10 µV 500 ms

14 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Music Congruous Weak incongruity -10 µV 500 ms

15 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Music Congruous Weak incongruity Strong incongruity -10 µV 500 ms

16 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Language Congruous -10 µV 500 ms

17 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Language Weak incongruity Congruous -10 µV 500 ms

18 Cz Musicians Non-musicians Event-Related brain Potentials Language Congruous Weak incongruity Strong incongruity -10 µV 500 ms

19 Conclusions oMusical ear : increase in pitch discrimination Weak incongruity : Differences between musicians and non – musicians in adults and children. oSimilarity Language – Music : Late Positive Components (categorisation – decision ) Language: weak incongruity only musicians oDifferences Language – Music : Early negative components : Music Adults: Right temporal Children: only musicians, more distributed Language Adults: Temporal bilateral Children : nothing!

20 Conclusion Musical expertise facilitates detection of pitch violations in language Can we find similar results with musical training ? Importance of music lessons for language learning ?

21 Elementary school « Gilibert » in Marseille Influence of 8 weeks of musical training ? Sylvain Moreno PhD

22 Participants 2 groups of 10 children equated for: Musical background (all non-musicians) age (8 yr old) Sex Laterality socio-economic background School level Teachers Experiment comprises 3 phases

23 Phase 1 La fillette assise par terre feuilletait un livre dimage Test 1 : same as before (language) + 35% + 120%

24 MachinArt Association Conceptor: C. Napoléoni Phase 2: Music Training (8 weeks)

25 Phase 2: Painting Training (8 weeks)

26 Phase 3 La fillette assise par terre feuilletait un livre dimage Test 2 : same as before (language) + 35% + 120%

27 Strong Incongruity ms Music TrainingDrawing Training Before Training After Training (8 weeks)

28 Conclusion 8 weeks of musical training influence the brain waves in language only for the strong incongruity (Moreno & Besson, 2006) Influence of longer training period (6 months) : research program in Aveiro, Portugal (Moreno, Marquez, Castro & Besson, in prep.) Importance of music for education programs ? Some answer in summer 06!

29 Andréia Santos, Sylvain Moreno, Michel Habib & Mireille Besson Equipe Langage, Musique et Motricité, INCM-Marseile

30 METHODS 10 phonological dyslexics mean age: 9.8 years; std: 1 year; reading level >18 months below chronological age 10 normal readers mean age: 8.8 years; std: 0.3 years; Combined phonological and visuo-auditory training Drawing training Daily (10 mn) phonological exercises Visuo-auditory transcoding – 20 mn 2x week 8 WEEKS8 WEEKS 8 WEEKS8 WEEKS Art games based on abstract painting exercises 40 mn 2x week Test 1 Test 2

31 Error rate Before Training After Training *

32 Controls Dyslexics ms -30 V 30 V Strong – Congruous Difference waves Before Training After Training

33 Conclusion Dyslexics seem to be impaired in pitch detection in language (strong incongruity) (Foxton et al, 2003) Phonological and audio-visual training improved the level of performance of dyslexic children Importance of music for dyslexia remediation ?

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36 In collaboration with Carlos Marquez and Sao Luis Castro University of Porto, Portugal

37 Design Similar experiment but: Only one phase (language) Sentences in Portugese 2 groups of 16 French adults, musicians and non-musicians

38 Fz Cz Pz ms -15 µV Non-musicians 500 Musicians 200 Effects start much earlier for musicians than for non-musicians I nfluence of musical expertise on prosodic processing of a foreign language Cong. Weak Strong

39 Before Training Dyslexics Controls Figure 3. Mean amplitude ERPs to pitch manipulations in control and dyslexic children before training. Congruous words Weak Incongruity Strong Incongruity ms -10 V 40 V

40 After Training Dyslexics Controls Congruous words Weak Incongruity Strong Incongruity ms -10 V 40 V Figure 4. Mean amplitude ERPs to pitch manipulations in control and dyslexic children after training.

41 Non-musicians

42 Musicians


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