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**Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists, by Walpole, Myers, Myers & Ye ~ Chapter 8 Notes**

Class notes for ISE 201 San Jose State University Industrial & Systems Engineering Dept. Steve Kennedy 1

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Populations & Samples A population is the set (possibly infinite) of all possible observations. Each observation is a random variable X having some (often unknown) probability distribution, f (x). If the population distribution is known, it might be referred to, for example, as a normal population, etc. A sample is a subset of a population. Our goal is to make inferences about the population based on an analysis of the sample. A biased sample, usually obtained by taking convenient, rather than representative observations, will consistently over- or under-estimate some characteristic of the population. Observations in a random sample are made independently and at random. Here, random variables X1, X2, …, Xn in the sample all have same distribution as the population, X.

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Sample Statistics Any function of the random variables X1, X2, …, Xn making up a random sample is called a statistic. The most important statistics, as we have seen are the sample mean, sample variance and sample standard deviation:

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**Sampling Distributions**

Starting with an unknown population distribution, we can study the sampling distribution, or distribution of a sample statistic (like Xbar or S) calculated from a sample of size n from that population. The sample consists of independent and identically distributed observations X1, X2, …, Xn from the population. Based on the sampling distributions of Xbar and S for samples of size n, we will make inferences about the population mean and variance and . We could approximate the sampling distribution of Xbar by taking a large number of random samples of size n and plotting the distribution of the Xbar values.

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**Sampling Distribution Summary**

Normal distribution: Sampling distribution of Xbar when is known for any population distribution. Also the sampling distribution for the difference of the means of two different samples. t-distribution: Sampling distribution of Xbar when is unknown and S is used. Population must be normal. Also the sampling distribution for the difference of the means of two different samples when is unknown. Chi-square (2) distribution: Sampling distribution of S2. Population must be normal. F-distribution: The distribution of the ratio of two 2 random variables. Sampling distribution of the ratio of the variances of two different samples. Population must be normal.

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Central Limit Theorem The central limit theorem is the most important theorem in statistics. It states that If Xbar is the mean of a random sample of size n from a population with an arbitrary distribution with mean and variance 2, then as n, the sampling distribution of Xbar approaches a normal distribution with mean and standard deviation /n . The central limit theorem holds under the following conditions: For any population distribution if n 30. For n < 30, if the population distribution is generally shaped like a normal distribution. For any value of n if the population distribution is normal.

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**Inferences About the Population Mean**

We often want to test hypotheses about the population mean (hypothesis testing will be formalized later). Example: Suppose a manufacturing process is designed to produce parts with = 6 cm in diameter, and suppose is known to be .15 cm. If a random sample of 80 parts has xbar = cm, what is the probability (P-value) that a value this far from the mean could occur by chance if is truly 6 cm?

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**Difference Between Two Means**

In addition, we can make inferences about the difference between two population means based on the difference between two sample means. The central limit theorem also holds in this case. If independent samples of size n1 and n2 are drawn at random from two populations, discrete or continuous, with means 1 and 2, and variances 12 and 22, then as n gets large, the sampling distribution of Xbar1 - Xbar2 approaches a normal distribution with

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**Difference of Two Means Example**

Suppose we record the drying time in hours of 20 samples each of two types of paint, type A and type B. Suppose we know that the population standard deviations are both equal to 1/2 hour. Assuming that the population means are equal, what is the probability that the difference in the sample means is greater than 1/2 hour? P(z > 3.16) = Very unlikely to happen by chance.

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**t-Distribution (when is Unknown)**

The problem with the central limit theorem is that it assumes that is known. Generally, if is being estimated from the sample, must be estimated from the sample as well. The t-distribution can be used if is unknown, but it requires that the original population must be normally distributed. Let X1, X2, ..., Xn be independent, normally distributed random variables with mean and standard deviation . Then the random variable T below has a t-distribution with = n - 1 degrees of freedom: The t-distribution is like the normal, but with greater spread since both and have fluctuations due to sampling.

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**Using the t-Distribution**

Observations on the t-Distribution: The t-statistic is like the normal, but using S rather than . Table value depends on the sample size (degrees of freedom). The t-distribution is symmetric with = 0, but 2 > 1. As would be expected, 2 is largest for small n. Approaches the normal distribution (2 = 1) as n gets large. For a given probability , table shows the value of t that has P() to the right of it. The t-distribution can also be used for hypotheses concerning the difference of two means where 1 and 2 are unknown, as long as the two populations are normally distributed. Usually if n 30, S is a good enough estimator of , and the normal distribution is typically used instead.

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**Sampling Distribution of S2**

If S2 is the variance of a random sample of size n taken from a normal population with known variance 2, then the statistic 2 below has a chi-squared distribution with = n-1 degrees of freedom: The 2 table is the reverse of the normal table. It shows the 2 value that has probability to the right of it. Note that the 2 distribution is not symmetric. Degrees of freedom: As before, you can think of degrees of freedom as the number of independent pieces of information. We use = n-1, since one degree of freedom is subtracted due to the fact that the sample mean is used to estimate when calculating S2. If is known, use n degrees of freedom.

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**F-Distribution Comparing Sample Variances**

The F statistic is the ratio of two 2 random variables, each divided by its number of degrees of freedom. If S12 and S22 are the variances of samples of size n1 and n2 taken from normal populations with variances 12 and 22, then has an F-distribution with 1 = n1 - 1 and 2 = n2 - 1 degrees of freedom. For the F-distribution table Note that since the ratio is inverted, 1 and 2 are reversed.

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F-Distribution Usage The F-distribution is used in two-sample situations to draw inferences about the population variances. In an area of statistics called analysis of variance, sources of variability are considered, for example: Variability within each of the two samples. Variability between the two samples (variability between the means). The overall question is whether the variability within the samples is large enough that the variability between the means is not significant.

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