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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition, © 2007 Rate of Return Analysis Lecture No. 24 Chapter 7 Contemporary Engineering Economics Copyright © 2006

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Chapter Opening Story – Return from a Pay-By-Touch System

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 This is the return that a company would earn if it invested in itself, rather than investing that money elsewhere Rate of Return

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 In October 1,1970, when Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. went public, an investment of 100 shares cost $1,650. That investment would have been worth $9,113,600 on September 30, 2006. What is the rate of return on that investment? Example: Meaning of Rate of Return

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 0 36 $9,113,600 $1,650 Given: P = $1,650 F = $9,113,600 N = 36 Find i: $9,113,600 = $1,650 (1 + i ) 36 i = 27.04% Rate of Return Finding the Unknown Interest Rate

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Suppose that you invested that amount ($1,650) in a savings account at 6% per year. Then, you could have only $13,443 in September, 2006. What is the meaning of this 6% interest here? This is your opportunity cost if putting money in savings account was the best you can do at that time! If You Invested the $1,650 in a Savings Account, How Much Would You Have 36 years Later?

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 In 1970, as long as you earn more than a 6% interest in another investment, you would take that investment. Therefore, that 6% is viewed as a minimum attractive rate of return (or required rate of return). So, you can apply the following decision rule, to see if the proposed investment is a good one. ROR (27.04%) > MARR(6%) Is This a Good investment?

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Why ROR measure is so popular? This project will bring in a 15% rate of return on investment. This project will result in a net surplus of $10,000 in NPW. Which statement is easier to understand?

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Definition 1: Interest Earned on Loan Balance Rate of return (ROR) is defined as the interest rate earned on the unpaid balance of an installment loan. Example: A bank lends $10,000 and receives annual payment of $4,021 over 3 years. The bank is said to earn a return of 10% on its loan of $10,000.

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Loan Balance Calculation: A = $10,000 (A/P, 10%, 3) = $4,021 Unpaid Return onUnpaid balance unpaidbalance at beg. balancePaymentat the end Yearof year(10%)receivedof year 01230123 -$10,000 -$6,979 -$3,656 -$1,000 -$698 -$366 +$4,021 -$10,000 -$6,979 -$3,656 0 A return of 10% on the amount still outstanding at the beginning of each year

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Rate of return (ROR) is the break-even interest rate, i *, which equates the present worth of a project’s cash outflows to the present worth of its cash inflows. Mathematical Relation: Definition 2: Break-Even Interest Rate

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Definition 3: Return on Invested Capital – Internal Rate of Return The internal rate of return is the interest rate earned on the unrecovered project balance of the investment such that, when the project terminates, the unrecovered project balance will be zero. Example: A company invests $10,000 in a computer and results in equivalent annual labor savings of $4,021 over 3 years. The company is said to earn a return of 10% on its investment of $10,000.

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Contemporary Engineering Economics, 4 th edition © 2007 Project Balance Calculation: 01230123 Beginning project balance Return on invested capital Payment received Ending project balance -$10,000-$6,979-$3,656 -$1,000 -$697 -$365 -$10,000 +$4,021+$4,021+$4,021 -$10,000 -$6,979 -$3,656 0 The firm earns a 10% rate of return on funds that remain internally invested in the project. Since the return is internal to the project, we call it internal rate of return.

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