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Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Accounting for Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Accounting for Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Accounting for Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold

2 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Current Assets-Inventories ServiceMerchandising Wholesale Retails Manufacturing Merchandise Raw Material Work-in Process Finished Goods

3 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 How do we determine the Acquisition Cost of Purchased Inventory? –Determine purchase price : ordering goods + receiving + inspecting + Recorded when title passes to the firm. –Adjust purchase price for: –transportation ( add) –handling (add) –customs and duties (add) –cash discounts (deduction) –returns (deduction) –to determine the acquisition cost Cost of inventory should include all costs incurred to acquire goods and prepare them for sale.

4 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 How do we record the transactions? Depends on the recording system: Perpetual or Periodic Perpetual Inventory System: A running record of purchases are kept through “merchandise inventory” account Purchases entries and Adjustments are made to the merchandise inventory account The amount of inventories at a point in time can be determined Cost of Goods sold is known during the period Periodic Inventory System: Purchases of inventory are recorded in “Purchases” account Adjustments are made to separate accounts“ Amount of inventories at a point can not be determined unless a physical count is made Cost of goods sold can be determined after physical count at the end of the period

5 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 How do we determine the cost of goods that are sold -COGS? Perpetual Accumulated in cost of goods sold account as sales are made Known during the period Physical count made at the end – helps to determine inventory shrinkage Periodic Cost of goods sold can be determined after the physical count Beginning Inventory (from previous period) + Purchases (net) – Ending Inventory (physical count) = Cost of goods sold Cannot determine inventory shrinkage

6 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

7 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Accounting for Sale of Merchandise- Perpetual Inventory System TWO ENTRIES ARE NECESSARY TO RECORD A SALE UNDER PERPETUAL INVENTORY SYSTEM 1.To record the sale transaction 2.To reflect the cost of the sales (cost of goods sold) made and deduct the cost of sales from the inventory 2) show the decrease in inventory and the corresponding increase in COGS 1) Record sale


9 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 COGS Computation

10 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Single Step Income Statement Deduct all expenses from the total of revenues without a distinction among the different sources of revenues or the causes of expenses

11 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Giysi Giyim A.S. Income Statement For the Year Ended 31 December 2004

12 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Multiple Step Income Statement Discloses numerous parts or steps to determine net income, showing income from operating and non-operating activities

13 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Giysi Giyim A.Ş. Income Statement For the Year Ended 31 December 2007

14 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Composition of Inventories Quantity taking a physical count of inventories determining the ownership of goods. INVENTORY = Unit cost * Quantity Unit Cost Cost Flow Assumptions

15 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Taking Physical Count During the physical count, a company should pay very close attention to the following issues in order to have an effective internal control and also to minimize the errors and fraud: 1.the employees who are responsible from safekeeping of inventory items should not count them, has to be made sure that the items are complete and what they are supposed to be, 3.items should be re-counted by another independent employee for verification, 4.counting process should be documented by tagging the inventory items, 5.a supervisor should oversee that each item has only one tag, and that each item is counted, and 6.there should be no inventory movements during the count

16 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Whose ? Determination of the owner of goods: Consignment goods –consignor (owner of the merchandise) and the consignee (the holder of the goods) Goods in transit are goods that are on the way to the company (purchases) or goods that are on a carrier being shipped to the customer

17 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Seller Buyer F.O.B. SHIPPING POINT WHO OWNS THE GOODS ON THE WAY?

18 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Seller Buyer F.O.B. DESTINATION WHO OWNS THE GOODS ON THE WAY?

19 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Inventory Costs Beginning Inventory + Purchases - Ending Inventory = COGS Available for Sale

20 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Inventory Cost Flows Specific Identification Method First-in First-out Weighted Average Last-in First-out – not allowed by IFRS or CMB

21 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Specific Identification Method used when the actual cost of the item is tracked closely follows the actual flow of goods whether a company uses a periodic or perpetual inventory system does not make any difference on cost of goods sold or the amount of inventory

22 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Cost Flow vs. Physical Flow First-in First-out (FIFO), and weighted average methods assume that flow of costs may be unrelated to physical flow of goods The accounting regulations do not require that the physical flow of goods and the related cost flow to be the same

23 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Example-Cost Flow

24 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 First-in First-out Method FIFO FIFO method assumes that the goods purchased earlier will be sold first The cost of the first units on hand is assigned to the units sold first

25 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

26 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Weighted Average Goods available are homogeneous and the cost to be assigned to each unit sold is the same

27 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Weighted Average-Perpetual

28 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Summary Perpetual Inventory System

29 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Lower of Cost or Net Realizable Value as time passes the value of the inventories might decline in the market because of the obsolescence factor IFRS specify that the companies should use the lower- of-cost-or net realizable (LCNRV) valuation basis Net realizable value is the expected sales price less costs to sell LCNRV rule can be applied with any of the cost flow methods, or the specific identification method LCNRV may be applied to individual items or major categories of inventory the decline in value is not expected to increase in the very near future

30 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Example-LCM-1 Item by item

31 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Example-LCM-1 Item by item

32 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Example-LCM-2 on 15 August 2008, the company sold 15 units of Item W at TL 126 per unit

33 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Example-LCM-3 Using item-by-item basis 31 December 2008

34 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 39% of current assets

35 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Allowance for decline in value of inventory

36 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Inventory Errors

37 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Inventory Errors

38 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Inventory Management and Ethical Issues inventories are closely related with net income and thus with the shareholders’ equity, and the assets taking decisions that would affect the ending inventory and cost of goods sold amount, the management can manipulate income for example, management might decide to make a large purchase at the end of the period, in order to maximize profits in that period, and then return the goods at the beginning of the following period stating that they are not according to specifications

39 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Finished Goods Raw Materials Work-in-process CLASSES OF INVENTORIESMANUFACTURING COSTS Direct Materials Direct Labor Mfg. Overhead Manufacturing Operations

40 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

41 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

42 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

43 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Accrued salaries and wages of direct labor

44 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

45 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007

46 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Analysis of Inventories To check whether adequate profits are generated by the operations To check whether inventory is adequate or more than adequate to meet future demands

47 Chapter 4&5Mugan-Akman 2007 Some Ratios very low ratio might point to some problems that are related to pricing policies, and inefficiencies in the production process a high turnover ratio usually shows that a company does not have obsolete products that it cannot sell Average Number of Days' Inventory on Hand = 365 days / Inventory Turnover Ratio shows whether a company has adequate stock on hand; can be used as an indicator of holding obsolete inventory

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