Presentation on theme: "Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Sales"— Presentation transcript:
1Merchandise Inventory and Cost of Sales Electronic Presentations in Microsoft® PowerPoint®Merchandise Inventory and Cost of SalesC H A P T E R 7Slides Content1-4 Learning objectives5-10 Inventory costingSpecific identificationMoving weighted average21 Mini-quizFIFO28 Mini quizLIFO35 Mini-quizFinancial reportingLower of cost or marketInventory errorsGross profit methodRetail method46 ReviewAppendix 7AAppendix 7BEnd of chapter
2Learning ObjectivesIdentify the components and costs included in merchandise inventory.Calculate the cost of goods sold and merchandise inventory using specific identification, moving weighted average, FIFO, and LIFO-perpetual.Analyze the effects of the costing methods on financial reporting.
3Learning ObjectivesCalculate the lower of cost or market value of inventory.Analyze the effects of inventory errors on current and future financial statements-perpetual.Apply both the gross profit and retail methods to estimate inventory.
4Learning ObjectivesCalculate cost of goods sold and merchandise inventory using specific identification, weighted average, FIFO, and LIFO-periodic. (Appendix 7A).Analyze the effects of inventory errors on current and future financial statements-periodic. (Appendix 7A).Assess inventory management using both merchandise turnover and days’ sales in inventory. (Appendix 7B)
5Assigning Costs to Inventory Accounting for inventory requires several decisions which include:Items to include in cost.Inventory System.Perpetual or PeriodicCosting Method.FIFO, LIFO, Moving Weighted Average, Specific IDUse of estimates.Gross profit method, Retail inventory method
6Items in Merchandise Inventory Inventory includes all goods owned by a company and held for sale.Items requiring special attention:Goods in TransitGoods on consignmentObsolete or damaged goods
7Costs of Merchandise Inventory All expenditures necessary to bring an item to a saleable condition and location.This includes:Invoice price less discountsImport dutiesTransportation-inStorageInsurance
8Assigning Costs to Inventory Management must decide on method of determining unit cost.This will affect both the income statement and the balance sheet.Methods:Specific IdentificationFIFOLIFOAverage Cost
11Specific Identification This method is used when items:Are unique.Can be directly identified with a specific purchase and its invoice.Examples: Automobiles, art custom furniture.
12Specific Identification — Example The opening inventory consists of 10 $91/unit.
13Specific Identification — Example This results in two layers of inventory.Additional units are $106/unit.
14Specific Identification — Example On August 14, 20 units are sold. Eight of these units came from the opening inventory and the remaining 12 units came from the August 3 purchase.
15Specific Identification — Example This leaves 2 units remaining from the original inventory and 3 units remaining from the August 3 purchase.
16Moving Weighted Average Method Under this method, the cost of all units are averaged together.Average cost per unitCost of goods available for saleNumber of units available for sale=
17Moving Weighted Average - Example The opening inventory consists of 10 $91/unit.
18Moving Weighted Average- Example Additional units are $106/unit.This results in an average cost of $100/unit.(10 x $91) + (15 x $106)25 units
19Moving Weighted Average- Example These 20 units are sold at the average cost of $100/unit.
20Moving Weighted Average- Example This leaves 5 units remaining at an average cost of $100/unit.
21Mini-QuizA company that uses a perpetual inventory system made the following cash purchases and sales:Jan. 1-Purchased 100 units at $10 per unit.Feb. 5-Purchased 60 units at $12 per unit.Mar.16-Sold for cash 40 units for $16 per unit.Prepare journal entries to record the sale assuming a Moving Weighted Average system is used.CashSales (40x16)Cost of goods sold 430Inventory(100x x12)/160 x 40
22First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Based on the assumption that the items are sold in the order acquired.When a sale occurs:The earliest units purchased are charged to Cost of Goods Sold.The cost of the most recent purchases remain in inventory.
23The opening inventory consists of 10 units @ $91/unit. FIFO — ExampleThe opening inventory consists of 10 $91/unit.
24FIFO — Example This results in two layers of inventory. Additional units are $106/unit.Additional units re $106/unit.
25FIFO — ExampleUnder FIFO, units are assumed to be sold in the order acquired. Therefore, of the 20 units sold on August 14, the first 10 units come from beginning inventory. Therefore, those 10 units are removed from the inventory record based on the cost of those units of $91.
26FIFO — ExampleThe remaining 10 units sold on August 14th come from the next purchase, made on August 3rd. Therefore, these units are removed from the inventory record based on their cost of $106.
27FIFO — ExampleThe ending inventory consists of the 5 remaining units from the August 3 purchase.
28Mini-QuizA company that uses a perpetual inventory system made the following cash purchases and sales:Jan. 1-Purchased 100 units at $10 per unit.Feb. 5-Purchased 60 units at $12 per unit.Mar.16-Sold for cash 40 units for $16 per unit.Prepare journal entries to record the sale assuming a FIFO system is used.CashSales (40x16)Cost of goods sold 400Inventory (40x10)
29Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) Based on the assumption that the most recently purchased items are sold first.When a sale occurs:The latest units purchased are charged to Cost of Goods Sold.The cost of the earliest purchases remain in inventory.
30The opening inventory consists of 10 units @ $91/unit. LIFO — ExampleThe opening inventory consists of 10 $91/unit.
31LIFO — Example This results in two layers of inventory. Additional units are $106/unit.
32Of the 20 units sold, these units are assumed to be sold first. LIFO — ExampleOf the 20 units sold, these units are assumed to be sold first.
33LIFO — ExampleOnce the latest units purchased are sold, units are sold from the previous purchase.
34This leaves 5 units remaining from the first purchase. LIFO — ExampleThis leaves 5 units remaining from the first purchase.
35Mini-QuizA company that uses a perpetual inventory system made the following cash purchases and sales:Jan. 1-Purchased 100 units at $10 per unit.Feb. 5-Purchased 60 units at $12 per unit.Mar.16-Sold for cash 40 units for $16 per unit.Prepare journal entries to record the sale assuming a LIFO system is used.CashSales (40x16)Cost of goods sold 480Inventory (40x12)
36Financial ReportingBecause prices change, the choice of an inventory method is important.
37Advantages of Each Method Financial ReportingAdvantages of Each MethodWeighted AverageSmoothes out purchase price changes.Last-In, First-OutBetter matches current costs in cost of goods sold with revenues.First-In, First-OutEnding inventory approximates current replacement cost.First-In, First-OutEnding inventory approximates current replacement cost.
38Financial ReportingA company is required to use the same accounting methods from period to period (consistency principle).A change is only acceptable when it improves financial reporting.The costing method used must be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements (full-disclosure principle).
39Lower of Cost or MarketInventory must be reported at market value when market is lower than cost (conservatism principle).Market may be defined as:Net realizable valueCurrent replacement cost
40Lower of Cost or Market May be applied in one of three ways: Separately to each item.To major categories of items.To the inventory as a whole.
41Inventory ErrorsErrors in the computation of or physical count of inventory will cause a misstatement of:Cost of goods soldGross profitNet incomeCurrent assetsOwner’s equity
42Inventory Errors- Effects on the Income Statement
44Gross Profit MethodEnding inventory is estimated by applying gross profit ratio to net sales.It is used:when inventory has been destroyed, lost, or stolen.for testing the reasonableness of the physical inventory count.
45Retail Inventory Method Occasionally used for interim period reporting.Information required:Beginning inventory at cost and retail.Net purchases at cost and retail.Net sales.
46ReviewDescribe how management’s decisions can affect the determination of the cost of inventory.Choice of method –FIFO,LIFO, Moving weighted average, Specific item.Choice of application of LCM -separate item, categories, whole inventory. Definition of market.Choice of periodic or perpetual system.Items to include in cost. Other.
47Periodic System-Appendix 7A The periodic system also uses FIFO, LIFO, specific identification, and weighted average methods to assign costs to inventory and cost of goods sold.The results may be the same or different under both systems.
48Specific Identification- Appendix 7A Applied in same manner as periodic system.Yields same results as perpetual system since units are specifically identified.
49Weighted Average-Appendix 7A Steps:Calculate weighted average unit cost.(# units beg. Inv. X unit cost) + (#units purchased x unit cost)# units available for sale= weighted average unit costUse weighted average unit cost to assign costs to cost of goods sold and ending inventory.
50FIFO-Appendix 7AYields same results as perpetual system since most recent purchases are in ending inventory under both systems.
51LIFO-Appendix 7A Yields different results than perpetual system since: LIFO periodic assigns costs at the end of period.LIFO perpetual assigns most recent costs to cost of goods sold.
52Inventory Errors in a Periodic System-Appendix 7A An error in the ending inventory affects the assets, net income, and owner’s equity of that period.The ending inventory of one period becomes the opening inventory of the next period. The cost of goods sold and net income of the next period are affected as well.
53Ratios-Appendix 7B Inventory ratios may be used to assess: Short-term liquidity.Inventory management.
54Ratios-Appendix 7B Merchandise Turnover Ratio Measures how many times a company turns its inventory over each period.The ratio will vary from industry to industry.Merchandise turnover cost of goods soldaverage inventory
55Ratios-Appendix 7B Days’ Sales in Inventory Used to estimate how many days it will take to convert inventory to cash or receivables.Used to assess if inventory levels can meet sales demand.Days’ sales in inventory = Ending inventory x 365Cost of goods sold