Using Information Extraction for Question Answering Done by Rani Qumsiyeh.
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Using Information Extraction for Question Answering Done by Rani Qumsiyeh
Problem More Information added to the web everyday. Search engines exist but they have a problem This calls for a different kind of search engine.
History of QA QA can be dated back to the 1960’s Two common approaches to design QA: Information Extraction Information Retrieval Two conferences to evaluate QA systems TREC (Text REtrieval Conference) MUC (Message Understanding Conference)
Common Issues with QA systems Information retrieval deals with keywords. Information extraction learns the question. The question could have multiple variations which means Easier for IR but more broad results Harder for IE but more EXACT results
Message Understanding Conference (MUC) Sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 1991-1998. Developed methods for formal evaluation of IE systems In the form of a competition, where the participants compare their results with each other and against human annotators‘ key templates. Short system preparation time to stimulate portability to new extraction problems. Only 1 month to adapt the system to the new scenario before the formal run.
Evaluation Metrics Precision and recall: Precision: correct answers/answers produced Recall: correct answers/total possible answers F-measure Where is a parameter representing relative importance of P & R: E.g., =1, then P&R equal weight, =0, then only P Current State-of-Art: F=.60 barrier
Named Entity Task (NE) Mark into the text each string that represents, a person, organization, or location name, or a date or time, or a currency or percentage figure
Template Element Task (TE) Extract basic information related to organization, person, and artifact entities, drawing evidence from everywhere in the text.
Template Relation task (TR) Extract relational information on employee_of, manufacture_of, location_of relations etc. (TR expresses domain independent relationships between entities identified by TE)
Scenario Template task (ST) Extract prespecified event information and relate the event information to particular organization, person, or artifact entities (ST identifies domain and task specific entities and relations)
Coreference task (CO) Capture information on corefering expressions, i.e. all mentions of a given entity, including those marked in NE and TE (Nouns, Noun phrases, Pronouns)
An Example The shiny red rocket was fired on Tuesday. It is the brainchild of Dr. Big Head. Dr. Head is a staff scientist at We Build Rockets Inc. NE: entities are rocket, Tuesday, Dr. Head and We Build Rockets CO: it refers to the rocket; Dr. Head and Dr. Big Head are the same TE: the rocket is shiny red and Head‘s brainchild TR: Dr. Head works for We Build Rockets Inc. ST: a rocket launching event occurred with the various participants.
Scoring templates Templates are compared on a slot-by- slot basis Correct: response = key Partial: response » key Incorrect: response != key Spurious: key is blank overgen=spurious/actual Missing: response is blank
KnowitAll, TextRunner, KnowitNow Differ in implementation, but do the same thing.
Using them as QA systems Able to handle questions that produce 1 relation Who is the president of the US? “can handle” Who was the president of the US in 1998? “fails” Produces a huge number of facts that the user still has to go through.
Textract Aims at solving ambiguity in text by introducing more named entities. What is Julian Werver Hill's wife's telephone number? equivalent to: What is Polly's telephone number? Where is Werver Hill's affiliated company located? equivalent to: Where is Microsoft located?
Proposed System Determine what named entity we are looking for using Textract. Use Part of Speech tagging. Use TextRunner as the basis for search. Use WordNet to find synonyms. Use extra entities in text as “constraints”
(WP who) (VBD was) (DT the) (JJ first) (NN man) (TO to) (VB land) (IN on) (DT the) (NN moon) The verb (VB) is treated as the argument. The noun (NN) is treated as the predicate We make sure that position is maintained We keep prepositions if they have two nouns. (president of the US) Other non stop words are constraints, i.e., “first”
Delimitations Works well with Who, When, Where questions as named entity is easily determined. Achieves about 90% accuracy on all Works less well with What, How questions Achieves about 70% accuracy Takes about 13 seconds to answer question.
Future Work Build an ontology to determine named entity and parse question (faster) Handle combinations of questions. When and where did the holocaust happen?