2Contents Introduction Outline of our approach Background Tf-Idf rankerSemantic similarity between sentencesDetails of our approachResultsConclusionReferences
3IntroductionTraditional information retrieval systems are particularly susceptible to all the problems posed by the richness of natural language.In particular multitude of ways in which the same concepts can be described.Overall context of the user input and the document is ignored.Traditional TF IDF Ranker ignores the relatedness of concepts. Searches for the exact word match.Introduction of semantic analyzer will improve the performance.
4Introduction (cont..)Aim of the project is to use traditional TF IDF ranker along with semantic analyzer to retrieve the documents. And to compare the performance of the new system with the traditional tf idf ranker.
5Introduction (cont..) This project uses, Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data set named Confusion track for validation .Wordnet lexical database.NET framework (wordnet .net)
7Outline of our approach (cont..) Input QueryDocument sPre-processorPrimary filterDocument sSemantic similarityTF IDF RankerDoc ID, Weight pairsFinal DocsTF IDF Ranker with introduction of Semantic knowledge
8Outline of our approach (cont..) Docs got from traditional tf idf approachInput QueryDocumentsPre-processorCorpusWord,DF pairsTF-IDF Ranker IIDocID, KeywordsFind the Keywords from each docUse Tf and Df (use Corpus)Wordnet semantic AnalyzerDoc ID, Semantic scoreFinal Docs
9Outline of our approach (cont..) Pre-processorTokenizeRemove stop words
10Background Tf-Idf ranker: Tf-idf ranker is used as a weighting factor in information retrieval and text mining.Terms that appear often in a document should get high weights.The more often a document contains a term, the more likely that the document is about the term. It is captures using Term frequency (TF).Terms that appear in many documents should get a low weight, which is captured using Inverse Document Frequency (IDF).The weight of a term in a document is calculated using below formula ,Wi,j=TFi,j * log (N/DFi)
11Semantic similarity between sentences: Semantic similarity between sentences is calculated using semantic information and the word order information.This project has used an implementation which calculates the semantic relatedness between two set of strings.The implementation uses Wordnet lexical database, to calculate the semantic relatedness.The score lies between 0 and 1. 0 representing least similarity score. 1being highest.
12Wordnet:Wordnet is the product of a research project at Princeton University .Information in Wordnet is organized around logical groupings called synsets.Each synset consists of a list of synonymous word forms and semantic pointers that describe relationships between the current synset and other synsets.In Wordnet, each part of speech words (nouns/verbs...) are organized into taxonomies where each node is a set of synonyms (synset) represented in one sense.
13Wordnet (cont..)If a word has more than one sense, it will appear in multiple synsets at various locations in the taxonomy.Wordnet defines relations between synsets and relations between word senses. A relation between synsets is a semantic relation, and a relation between word senses is a lexical relation.
14Wordnet (cont..) For example, The shortest path between male and female in Fig. 1 is male-person-female, the minimum path length is 2.The minimum path length between female and teacher is 5.
15Details of our approach Traditional TF-IDF RankerStep1:Preprocess input queryTokenizationRemove stop wordsStep2: Apply Tf-Idf rankerTF-Idf ranker would identify number of times each word appears in each of the documents as shown below.Where TFij is the term frequency of word wi in document Dj.DFi indicates document frequency of word Wi in document collectionD1D2D3, ,DNDFW1TF11TF12TF1NDF1W2TF21TF22TF2NDF2W3TF31TF32TF3NDF3:WnTFn1TFn2TFnNDFn
16Details of our approach(cont..) Calculating the weight:The weight of each word is calculated using below formula.Wi,j=TFi,j * log (N/DFi)D1D2D3, ,DNDFW1W11W12W1NDF1W2W21W22W2NDF2W3W31W32W3NDF3:WnWn1Wn2WnNDFnWeight sumS1S2SN
17Details of our approach(cont) Step3 : Retrieve the documents Sort all the documents according to the weights. Pick top Q documents for further processing. Q is chosen such as the weight of each document crosses a particular threshold d1. Improved TF-IDF Ranker Step1: We choose top S from the step3 of previous method. Here we use another threshold d2(d2<d1) to get the set of docs for further processing. Step2: Extract the keywords (Words which have high TF and low DF) from each document.DocDFWeightW1TF1DF1We1W2TF2DF2We2W3TF3DF3We3:WnTFnDFnWen
18Details of our approach(cont) Corpus containing IDF (logN/DF) of each word from docs
19Details of our approach(cont..) Step 3: For each document, calculate the semantic similarity score between its keyword set and the input query. Step 4: Sort the docs w.r.t to score. Eliminate the docs with score less than a specified threshold (b=0.5). Step 5: Display the docs.
25Screenshots(cont..)Improved IF IDF Ranker(with semantic knowledge)
26ConclusionThis project has improvised traditional TF-IDF ranker by introducing Semantic analyzer.Successfully showed that, using semantic analyzer has good precision and recall values.Next, it used a dataset from Text Retrieval Conference Data (TREC) to validate the project.One limitation of Tf-Idf Ranker is, terms that occur in query input text but that cannot be found in documents gets zero scores.
27References R. Rada, H. Mili, E. Bichnell, and M. Blettner, “Development and Application of a Metric on Semantic Nets,” IEEE Trans. System, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp , 1989. Li, Yuhua,et.al, “Sentence Similarity Based on Semantic Nets and Corpus Statistics,” IEEE Trans on knowledge and data engineering, vol 18, no.8,2006. Dao, Thanh, Troy Simpson, “Measuring similarity between the sentences” .Web. R. Richardson, A. F. Smeaton and J. Murphy, “Using WordNet as a Knowledge Base for Measuring Semantic Similarity between Words,” School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University.Web. TfIdf Ranker, ‘http://vetsky.narod2.ru/catalog/tfidf_ranker/’ .web. Confusion track, TREC dataset ‘http://trec.nist.gov/data/t5_confusion.html’ .Web.