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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 1 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion 19.4 Load-dependent properties of resonant converters Resonant inverter design objectives: 1. Operate with a specified load characteristic and range of operating points With a nonlinear load, must properly match inverter output characteristic to load characteristic 2. Obtain zero-voltage switching or zero-current switching Preferably, obtain these properties at all loads Could allow ZVS property to be lost at light load, if necessary 3. Minimize transistor currents and conduction losses To obtain good efficiency at light load, the transistor current should scale proportionally to load current (in resonant converters, it often doesn’t!)

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 2 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Input impedance of the resonant tank network Appendix C: Section C.4.4 where Expressing the tank input impedance as a function of the load resistance R:

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 3 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Magnitude of the tank input impedance If the tank network is purely reactive, then each of its impedances and transfer functions have zero real parts, and the tank input and output impedances are imaginary quantities. Hence, we can express the input impedance magnitude as follows:

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 4 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion A Theorem relating transistor current variations to load resistance R Theorem 1: If the tank network is purely reactive, then its input impedance || Z i || is a monotonic function of the load resistance R. So as the load resistance R varies from 0 to , the resonant network input impedance || Z i || varies monotonically from the short-circuit value || Z i0 || to the open-circuit value || Z i ||. The impedances || Z i || and || Z i0 || are easy to construct. If you want to minimize the circulating tank currents at light load, maximize || Z i ||. Note: for many inverters, || Z i || < || Z i0 || ! The no-load transistor current is therefore greater than the short-circuit transistor current.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 5 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Series resonant tank

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 6 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Parallel resonant tank

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 7 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion f m of parallel resonant tank

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 8 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion LCC tank

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 9 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Z i0 and Z i for 3 common inverters

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 10 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Example: || Z i || of LCC for f < f m, || Z i || increases with increasing R. for f > f m, || Z i || decreases with increasing R. for f = f m, || Z i || constant for all R. at a given frequency f, || Z i || is a monotonic function of R. It’s not necessary to draw the entire plot: just construct || Z i0 || and || Z i ||.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 11 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Discussion wrt transistor current scaling – LCC || Z i0 || and || Z i || both represent series resonant impedances, whose Bode diagrams are easily constructed. || Z i0 || and || Z i || intersect at frequency f m. For f < f m then || Z i0 || < || Z i || ; hence transistor current decreases as load current decreases For f > f m then || Z i0 || > || Z i || ; hence transistor current increases as load current decreases, and transistor current is greater than or equal to short-circuit current for all R LCC example

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 12 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Discussion wrt ZVS and transistor current scaling Series and parallel tanks f s above resonance: No-load transistor current = 0 ZVS fs below resonance: No-load transistor current = 0 ZCS f s above resonance: No-load transistor current greater than short circuit current ZVS f s below resonance but > f m : No-load transistor current greater than short circuit current ZCS for no-load; ZVS for short-circuit f s < f m : No-load transistor current less than short circuit current ZCS for no-load; ZVS for short-circuit

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 13 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Discussion wrt ZVS and transistor current scaling LCC tank f s > f inf No-load transistor current greater than short circuit current ZVS f m < f s < f inf No-load transistor current greater than short circuit current ZCS for no-load; ZVS for short-circuit f 0 < f s < f m No-load transistor current less than short circuit current ZCS for no-load; ZVS for short-circuit f s < f 0 No-load transistor current less than short circuit current ZCS

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 14 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion 19.4 Load-dependent properties of resonant converters Resonant inverter design objectives: 1. Operate with a specified load characteristic and range of operating points With a nonlinear load, must properly match inverter output characteristic to load characteristic 2. Obtain zero-voltage switching or zero-current switching Preferably, obtain these properties at all loads Could allow ZVS property to be lost at light load, if necessary 3. Minimize transistor currents and conduction losses To obtain good efficiency at light load, the transistor current should scale proportionally to load current (in resonant converters, it often doesn’t!)

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 15 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion A Theorem relating the ZVS/ZCS boundary to load resistance R Theorem 2: If the tank network is purely reactive, then the boundary between zero-current switching and zero-voltage switching occurs when the load resistance R is equal to the critical value R crit, given by It is assumed that zero-current switching (ZCS) occurs when the tank input impedance is capacitive in nature, while zero-voltage switching (ZVS) occurs when the tank is inductive in nature. This assumption gives a necessary but not sufficient condition for ZVS when significant semiconductor output capacitance is present.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 16 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Z i phasor

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 17 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Proof of Theorem 2 Previously shown: If ZCS occurs when Z i is capacitive, while ZVS occurs when Z i is inductive, then the boundary is determined by Z i = 0. Hence, the critical load R crit is the resistance which causes the imaginary part of Z i to be zero: Note that Z i , Z o0, and Z o have zero real parts. Hence, Solution for R crit yields

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 18 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Algebra

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 19 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Algebra

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 20 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Discussion —Theorem 2 Again, Z i , Z i0, and Z o0 are pure imaginary quantities. If Z i and Z i0 have the same phase (both inductive or both capacitive), then there is no real solution for R crit. Hence, if at a given frequency Z i and Z i0 are both capacitive, then ZCS occurs for all loads. If Z i and Z i0 are both inductive, then ZVS occurs for all loads. If Z i and Z i0 have opposite phase (one is capacitive and the other is inductive), then there is a real solution for R crit. The boundary between ZVS and ZCS operation is then given by R = R crit. Note that R = || Z o0 || corresponds to operation at matched load with maximum output power. The boundary is expressed in terms of this matched load impedance, and the ratio Z i / Z i0.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 21 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion LCC example f > f : ZVS occurs for all R f < f 0 : ZCS occurs for all R f 0 R crit. Note that R = || Z o0 || corresponds to operation at matched load with maximum output power. The boundary is expressed in terms of this matched load impedance, and the ratio Z i / Z i0.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 22 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion LCC example, continued Typical dependence of R crit and matched-load impedance || Z o0 || on frequency f, LCC example. Typical dependence of tank input impedance phase vs. load R and frequency, LCC example.

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 23 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion Switch network waveforms, above resonance Zero-voltage switching Conduction sequence: D 1 –Q 1 –D 2 –Q 2 Tank current is negative at the beginning of each half-interval – antiparallel diodes conduct before their respective switches Q 1 is turned on during D 1 conduction interval, without loss – D 2 already off!

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Fundamentals of Power Electronics 24 Chapter 19: Resonant Conversion 19.4.4 Design Example Select resonant tank elements to design a resonant inverter that meets the following requirements: Switching frequency f s = 100 kHz Input voltage V g = 160 V Inverter is capable of producing a peak open circuit output voltage of 400 V Inverter can produce a nominal output of 150 Vrms at 25 W

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