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Supply Chain Management

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Presentation on theme: "Supply Chain Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supply Chain Management
Chapter 10 Supply Chain Management Operations Management - 5th Edition Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III

2 Lecture Outline Supply Chain Management (SCM) basics SCM objectives
SCM decision phases Distribution and Transportation Recent trends in SCM

3 What is a Supply Chain? All facilities, functions, activities, associated with flow and transformation of goods and services from raw materials to customer, as well as the associated information flows An integrated group of processes to “source,” “make,” and “deliver” products All parties involved, directly or indirectly, in the fulfillment of a customer request

4 “Supply Networks” Most supply chains have multiple suppliers
A better term would be Supply Networks

5 Supply Chain Illustration

6 Supply Chain for Denim Jeans

7 Supply Chain for Denim Jeans (cont.)

8 Supply Chain Processes

9 Supply Chain for Service Providers
More difficult than manufacturing Does not necessarily focus on the flow of physical goods Focuses on human resources and support services More compact and less extended

10 Supply Chain Management (SCM)
Managing flow of information through supply chain in order to attain the level of synchronization that will make it more responsive to customer needs while lowering costs Keys to effective SCM information communication cooperation trust

11 Objectives of SCM Maximize value Increase firm’s profitability
Increase revenue Responsiveness, flexibility Reduce costs For making product, transportation, receiving orders, and customer service

12 Value vs. Supply Chain Value chain Supply chain
every step from raw materials to the eventual end user ultimate goal is delivery of maximum value to the end user Supply chain activities that get raw materials and subassemblies into manufacturing operation Terms are often used interchangeably

13 The Value Chain: Linking SC and Business Strategy
New Product Development Marketing and Sales Operations Distribution Service Finance, Accounting, Information Technology, Human Resources Business Strategy New Product Strategy Supply Chain Strategy

14 SCM Decision Phases Supply chain strategy or design
Supply chain planning Supply chain operations

15 Strategy and Design How should the SC be structured over several years? What should be the locations and capacities of production and warehousing? How should we take into account uncertainty in future market conditions?

16 How is Strategic Fit Achieved?
Step 1: Understanding the customer and demand uncertainty Step 2: Understanding the supply chain Step 3: Implementing policies to match strategic business model with the supply chain

17 Step 1: Understanding Customer and Demand Uncertainty
Identify the needs of the customer segment(s) being served Demand uncertainty: how much product is demanded by each customer segment? SC uncertainty: what can go wrong within the SC? Late deliveries, inflated orders, long variable lead times, incomplete shipments, bad quality shipments One “solution” to this problem is to hold extra inventory. Is this a good idea?

18 Bullwhip Effect Occurs when slight demand variability is magnified as information moves back upstream

19 Step 2: Understanding the SC
There is a cost to achieving responsiveness High Low Responsiveness Cost

20 Step 3: Achieving Strategic Fit
Ensure SC is consistent with target customers’ needs Implied uncertainty spectrum Responsive supply chain Efficient supply chain Certain demand Uncertain demand Responsiveness spectrum Zone of Strategic Fit

21 Obstacles to Achieving Strategic Fit
Increasing variety of products Decreasing product life cycles Increasingly demanding customers Fragmentation of SC ownership Globalization Difficulty executing new strategies

22 Supply Chain Planning Intermediate range planning (quarter to a year)
Similar to aggregate planning (Chap 13) Start with forecast, consider options for supply, timing of marketing promotions

23 Supply Chain Operations
Daily to weekly planning Goal is handle incoming order in best possible manner Allocate inventory or production to particular orders, decide shipment mode, set delivery schedule, place replenishment orders

24 Supply Chain Integration
Getting the various supply chain members to collaborate and work together IT has been an integral part

25 Suppliers and Outsourcing
selection of suppliers Outsourcing purchase of goods and services from an outside supplier Core competencies what a company does best Single sourcing a company purchases goods and services from only a few (or one) suppliers

26 Distribution Encompasses all channels, processes, and functions, including warehousing and transportation, that a product passes on its way to final customer Often called logistics Logistics transportation and distribution of goods and services Driving force today is speed Particularly important for Internet dot-coms


28 Distribution Centers (DCs)
DCs are some of the largest business facilities in the United States Trend is for more frequent orders in smaller quantities Flow-through facilities and automated material handling Postponement final assembly and product configuration may be done at the DC

29 Transportation Rail Trucking
low-value, high-density, bulk products, raw materials, intermodal containers not as economical for small loads, slower, less flexible than trucking Trucking main mode of freight transport in U.S. small loads, point-to-point service, flexible More reliable, less damage than rails; more expensive than rails for long distance

30 Transportation (cont.)
Air most expensive and fastest, mode of freight transport lightweight, small packages <500 lbs high-value, perishable and critical goods less theft Package Delivery small packages fast and reliable increased with e-Business primary shipping mode for Internet companies

31 Transportation (cont.)
Water low-cost shipping mode primary means of international shipping U.S. waterways slowest shipping mode Intermodal combines several modes of shipping-truck, water and rail key component is containers Pipeline transport oil and products in liquid form high capital cost, economical use long life and low operating cost

32 SCM Software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
software that integrates components of a company by sharing and organizing information and data SAP was first ERP software web enabled modules that allow collaboration between companies along the supply chain

33 Recent Trends in SCM RFID Globalization Supply chain security
Network optimization Transportation issues

34 RFID Capabilities

35 RFID Capabilities (cont.)

36 Global Supply Chain To compete globally requires an effective supply chain Information technology is an “enabler” of global trade Nations form trading groups No tariffs or duties

37 Obstacles to Global Chain Transactions
Increased documentation for invoices, cargo insurance, letters of credit, ocean bills of lading or air waybills, and inspections Ever changing regulations that vary from country to country that govern the import and export of goods Trade groups, tariffs, duties, and landing costs Limited shipping modes Differences in communication technology and availability

38 Obstacles to Global Chain Transactions (cont.)
Different business practices as well as language barriers Government codes and reporting requirements that vary from country to country Numerous players, including forwarding agents, custom house brokers, financial institutions, insurance providers, multiple transportation carriers, and government agencies Since 9/11, numerous security regulations and requirements

39 Effects of 9/11 on Global Chains
Increase security measures added time to supply chain schedules Increased supply chain costs 24 hours rules for “risk screening” extended documentation extend time by 3-4 days Inventory levels have increased 5% Other costs include: new people, technologies, equipment, surveillance, communication, and security systems, and training necessary for screening at airports and seaports around the world

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