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Table 29.1 Ten Phyla of Extant Plants
Figure 29.1 Some highlights of plant evolution
Figure 29.2 Charophyceans: Chara (top), Coleochaete orbicularis (bottom)
Figure 29.2x Chara
Figure 29.3 Apical meristems of plant shoots and roots
Figure 29.4 Embryos of land plants: Marchantia (left), Shepherd's purse (right)
Figure 29.6 Alternation of generations: a generalized scheme
Figure A fern spore
Figure 29.8 Sporangium of a hornwort (a bryophyte) sporophyte
Figure 29.9 Gametangia: Archegonium of Marchantia (left), Anteridium of a hornwort (right)
Figure 29.10 Cuticle of a stem from Psilotum (a pteridophyte)
Figure 29.11 The stem of Polypodium, a fern (a pteridophyte)
Figure 29.11 Xylem and phloem in the stem of Polypodium, a fern (a pteridophyte)
Figure 29.12 Fossilized spores and sporophyte tissue
Figure A hypothetical mechanism for the origin of alternation of generations in the ancestor of plants
Figure 29.14 Three clades that are candidates for designation as the plant kingdom
Figure 29.15x1 Hornwort
Figure 29.15x2 Quillwort
Figure 29.16 The life cycle of Polytrichum, a moss (Layer 1)
Figure 29.16 The life cycle of Polytrichum, a moss (Layer 2)
Figure 29.16 The life cycle of Polytrichum, a moss (Layer 3)
Figure 29.16x Moss life cycle
Figure 29.x1 Polytrichum moss leaf section
Figure 29.17 Sporophyte of Marchantia, a liverwort
Figure 29.18 A moss sporangium with a “spore-shaker” tip
Figure Sphagnum, or peat moss: Peat bog in Oneida County, Wisconsin (top), closeup of Sphagnum (bottom left), Sphagnum "leaf" (bottom right)
Figure 29.19x A peat moss bog in Norway
Figure 29.20 Cooksonia, a vascular plant of the Siluria
Figure Pteridophytes: club "moss" (top left), whisk fern (top right), horsetail (bottom left), fern (bottom right)
Figure 29.21x1 Lycophyte
Figure 29.21x2 Horsetail
Figure 29.22 Hypotheses for the evolution of leaves
Figure 29.23 The life cycle of a fern
Figure 29.23x1 Life cycle of a fern: mature fern
Figure 29.23x2 Life cycle of a fern: sorus
Figure 29.23x3 Life cycle of a fern: sporangium
Figure 29.23x4 Life cycle of a fern: mature sporangium
Figure 29.23x5 Life cycle of a fern: germinating
Figure 29.23x6 Life cycle of a fern: gametophyte
Figure 29.23x7 Life cycle of a fern: archegonia
Figure 29.23x8 Life cycle of a fern: sporophytes
Figure 29.24a Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production
Figure 29.24b Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production
Figure 29.24c Fern sporophyll, a leaf specialized for spore production
Figure 29.25 Artist’s conception of a Carboniferous forest based on fossil evidence
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