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Motors Physics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 21

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Ring in Solenoid If the current flows clockwise through the solenoid, the B field inside is straight down We need to find the flux through the loop before and after the current is switched off = BA cos = BA B = 0 nI = (4 X10 -7 )(1000)(10) = A = (0.1)(0.1) =

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Current in Ring = BA = (0.0126)(0.01) = In 1 second the flux goes to 0 = (1.26 X 10 -4 ) - (0) = 1.26 X 10 -4 t = 1 = -N( / t) = (1)(1.26 X 10 -4 ) = V = IR or I = /R = 1.26 X 10 -4 /10 I =

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What is the direction of current in the loop from the PAL (seen from top down)? A)clockwise B)counterclockwise C)left D)right E)down

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A bar magnet held north pole up is dropped straight down through a face up coil of wire. What is the direction of the current in the coil as the magnet enters and leaves the coil? A)clockwise, counterclockwise B)counterclockwise, clockwise C)clockwise, clockwise D)counterclockwise, counterclockwise E)no current is induced

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Motional emf If we make the loop larger or smaller, or move it in or out of a field, we will induce a potential remember emf is a potential difference (or voltage) How does motion in a field translate to voltage?

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Motional emf - Derived Consider a conductor of length L sliding on a frame with velocity v but x = v t, so A = Lv t / t = B A/ t = (BLv t)/ t = BLv X B field into page v x L x in time t AA

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Motional emf -- Direction If the area decreases, the flux decreases and thus the induced B field is in the same direction as the original

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Generators What is the most efficient way to use inductance to produce current? This changing flux produces an emf in the loop Turn the loop with an external source of work A machine that converts work into emf is called a generator

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Alternating Current Which way does the current flow? Thus the current flows in one direction and then the other e.g. household current is at 60 Hz, or 60 cycles per second This is called alternating current

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emf From a Generator Consider a loop of wire rotating in a magnetic field with angular speed From Faraday’s Law: The flux is equal to BA cos The change of with time is thus BA sin t, so the emf is: = NBA sin t

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Sinusoidal Variations As the loop makes one complete rotation ( t goes from 0 to 2 radians) the emf goes from 0, to maximum +, to maximum -, and back to zero again The current through the loop goes one way and then the other, sometimes is weak and sometimes is strong max

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Frequency The angular frequency ( ) tells you how fast the loop is rotating in radians per second The number of these cycles made per second is the frequency f = /2 The emf equation has two parts NBA is the maximum emf

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Today’s PAL Consider a generator that consists of a single 1 meter by 1 meter loop of wire with a resistance of 15 in a magnetic field of 2 T How many times per second must you rotate the loop to produce a maximum current of 12 amps?

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Power Generation Produced (in general) in two ways: Chemically by batteries Magnetically by generators A changing magnetic field separates charges

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An Alternating Current Generator

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Motors If you run a generator backwards it becomes a motor Motor converts emf to work As the loop rotates a current is induced in it opposite that of the original Example: A motor initially has 120 volts, but if the motor produces a back emf of 70 volts, then the total emf is 50 volts

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Force on Eddy Currents

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Eddy Currents Imagine a loop moving out of a magnetic field As the field through the loop drops, it induces a field in the same direction If the object is not a loop, circular currents can still be induced which have the same effect Net effect: Metal objects moving through a magnetic field will be slowed

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Next Time Read 21.7, 21.9-21.11 Homework: Ch 21, P 14, 23, 30, 39

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