Presentation on theme: "WIPO Symposium on Geographical Indications"— Presentation transcript:
1 WIPO Symposium on Geographical Indications International Registration of Geographical Indications: what producers needDavid ThualWIPO Symposium on Geographical IndicationsParma, 29 June 2005
2 An International network of GI producers: OriGIn - ORganisation for an International Geographical Indications Network: NGO launched in June 2003An International network of GI producers:Around 70 organisations of producersMore than one million GI producers representedFrom 30 countries (Africa, Asia, North and South America, Eastern and Western Europe)WIPO Observer Status – November 2004
4 ‘s Who’s Who President Pedro Echeverria Guatemala Africa Agnes Nyaga KenyaAsiaBrig. Anil AdhlakaIndiaNorth AmericaRamonGonzalezMexicoEastern EuropeTomislav GalovicCroatiaWestern EuropeEnrique GarrigosSpain
5 Why the need for an International registration of GIs Legal certainty for producersProtection of consumers against misleading advertisingBut also……Protection of traditional knowledge and local know-how…Protection of a key development tool
6 Trademarks and GIs: Two complementary but different concepts In many sectors, GIs and TMs are used in combination by producersHowever, GIs and TMs are different legal conceptsGIs and TMs also play a different role with regard to:The development of local communitiesThe information transmitted to consumers= they both deserve adequate protection
7 GIs and TMs: Main differences MAY certify originIndividual controlCan be produced anywhereProtection must be renewed periodicallyHight cost of protection : +/- 1,500 to 2,000 € per class and per TMGIsMUST certify originCollective controlProduction rooted in a regionOften protection as long as conditions for protection upheldOften limited registration costs≠
8 Comparative Scope of Protection: certification mark / GI systems Absolute protection of the name for all legitimate producersRight on the name even if not usedOften guarantee against:“genericity”Name used in translation and used with expressions like “style”, “type”, etc.Enforcement: often mix of public & private actionsCMScope of protection:Protection of a name in combination with a logo for any organisationRight on the name if usedNo guarantee against:“genericity”name used in translation and used with expressions like “style”, “type”, etc.Enforcement: private
9 GIs: a development tool GIs stimulate the economy, growth and innovationGIs provide producers with a higher income in exchange for guarantees on quality and production methodsGIs encourage diversification of production, thus preserving:BiodiversityLocal know-how, traditional knowledgeGIs prevent the standardization of food and promote diversified and balanced dietsWith GIs: no delocalisation of production is possible
10 GIs bring a unique added value to both producers and consumers GIs as a marketing toolWould Moët & Chandon be so sought after if it was not a Champagne?Producers of Café de Colombia already enjoy protection as a collective mark. Why the interest for GI protectionGIs bring a unique added value to both producers and consumers
11 GIs create value beyond TMs A TM creates a certain valueProtection of a name. Ex: Coca-Cola®Protection of a logoProtection of a shape
12 The Geographical Indication’s Promesse GIs protect a products’ name that is based on specific quality & method of productionGis provide with a seal of origin and convey certain messages linked to:A « terroir »An historyTraditional knowledge and know-howGIs provide with guarantees on the origin (traceability) and a certain qualityThis promesse appeals consumers!
13 An increasing market for GIs 40% of European consumers are ready to pay a 10% premium price for GI productsEC Study 199975% of Italian consumers are ready to pay a 20% premium price for GI productsEtude Nomisma Qualivita de 2003
14 Protecting Geographical Indications via trademark systems: mission almost impossible!
15 Barriers to GI registration Product not allowed in the country: no defensive name protection availableExample: Parma ham in AustraliaRegistration refused: generic and/or descriptive nameParma ham in most countries!Turron de Jijona & Turron de Alicante in the USAName already registered as trademarkExample: Parma ham in Canada
16 No absolute protection of the name via the TM system Multiplication of similar marksIdaho PotatoesSeveral CM: « Idaho Preferred », « Idaho Potatoes Grown in Idaho », « Idaho », « Grown in Idaho »Several TM: « Idaho’s Best », « Idaho Naturally »Napa ValleyCMTM
17 Inadequate protection via TM system Registration of « Parmigiano-Reggiano » as a CM in the US is not a registration of the individual terms « Parmigiano » and « Reggiano »The Consorzio has not yet been able to protect « Parmigiano » and « Reggiano » separately in the US as CMs because the USPTO requires:two different certification standards: one for “Parmigiano” & one for “Reggiano” !the Consorzio to allow the use of these terms separately!
18 The Need for an International Register of GIs For GIs to play their positive role, producers need:Legal means to prevent free ride on the reputation and image of GI productsmore legal certaintyA simple and sui generis register: key for small producers who cannot seek registration country-by-country
19 The Way Forward A multilateral and not a plurilateral register The WTO route is requiredAccessible to all countries, in particular developing onesUser friendlyA non-discriminatory approachExtension of Article 23 TRIPs to all productsA register open to all productsWIPO arbitration system for trademarks and domain names to be extended to GIsA register with legal effectsNo to a simple databaseNeed for the burden of the proof to be reversed
20 Thank you very much www.origin-gi.com email@example.com · Let me finish by thanking you for your attention· The road will be long but we know where we want to go. We now need to all work together to achieve results!· Thank you.