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Design of Systems with INTERNAL CONVECTION P M V Subbarao Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Department IIT Delhi An Essential Part of Exchanging Heat……..

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Evolution of Macro Flow Parameters

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Energy Balance : Heating or Cooling of fluid Rate of energy inflow TmTm T m + dT m dx qq Rate of energy outflow Rate of heatflow through wall: Conservation of energy:

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This expression is an extremely useful result, from which axial Variation of T m may be determined. The solution to above equation depends on the surface thermal condition. Two special cases of interest are: 1.Constant surface heat flux. 2.Constant surface temperature

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Constant Surface Heat flux heating or cooling For constant surface heat flux: For entire pipe: For small control volume:

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Integrating form x = 0 The mean temperature varies linearly with x along the tube. For a small control volume: The surface temperature variation depends on variation of h. For a thermally developed flow with constant wall flux:

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Integrating from x=0 (T m = T m,i ) to x = L (T m = T m,o ): Constant Surface Heat Flux : Heating of Fluid

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Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient TiTi T s (x) q’’ Cold Wall & Hot Fluid T(r,x)

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Computation of Temperature Distribution For axi-symmetric flow & Heat Transfer : For high Prandtl number fluids, the flow can be approximated as hydrodynamically developed and thermally developing flow.

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Thermally Developed Flow: Constant Heat Flux

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Similarly for constant wall temperature:

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Solution : Constant Heat Flux : Fully Developed Boundary conditions: For hydrodynamically developed flow:

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Integration of above equation with substitution of boundary conditions: Substitute T &u and integrate

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TmTm T m + dT m dx qq

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Integrating from x=0 (T m = T m,i ) to x = L (T m = T m,o ): For a small control volume: Constant Surface Temperature heating or cooling

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h : Average Convective heat transfer coefficient.

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The above result illustrates the exponential behavior of the bulk fluid for constant wall temperature. It may also be written as:

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Constant Surface Temperature heating or cooling T x T x

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To get this we write: to get the local variation in bulk temperature. For practical use, it important to relate the wall temperature, the inlet and exit temperatures, and the rate of heat transfer one single expression.

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Constant Surface Temperature heating or cooling T x T x

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Define Log Mean Temperature Difference :

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The above expression requires knowledge of the exit temperature, which is only known if the heat transfer rate is known and vice versa. An alternate equation can be derived which eliminates the outlet temperature. We Know

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Convection correlations: laminar flow in circular tubes 1. The fully developed region for constant surface heat flux for constant surface temperature Note: the thermal conductivity k should be evaluated at average T m

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Convection correlations: laminar flow in circular tubes The entry region : for the constant surface temperature condition thermal entry length

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Convection correlations: laminar flow in circular tubes for the combined entry length All fluid properties evaluated at the mean T Valid for

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Thermally developing, hydrodynamically developed laminar flow (Re < 2300) Constant wall temperature: Constant wall heat flux:

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Simultaneously developing laminar flow (Re < 2300) Constant wall temperature: Constant wall heat flux: which is valid over the range 0.7 < Pr < 7 or if Re Pr D/L 7.

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Convection correlations: turbulent flow in circular tubes A lot of empirical correlations are available. For smooth tubes and fully developed flow. For rough tubes, coefficient increases with wall roughness. For fully developed flows

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Fully developed turbulent and transition flow (Re > 2300) Constant wall Temperature: Where Constant wall temperature: For fluids with Pr > 0.7 correlation for constant wall heat flux can be used with negligible error.

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Effects of property variation with temperature Liquids, laminar and turbulent flow: Subscript w: at wall temperature, without subscript: at mean fluid temperature Gases, laminar flow Nu = Nu 0 Gases, turbulent flow

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Noncircular Tubes: Correlations For noncircular cross-sections, define an effective diameter, known as the hydraulic diameter: Use the correlations for circular cross-sections.

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Selecting the right correlation Calculate Re and check the flow regime (laminar or turbulent) Calculate hydrodynamic entrance length (x fd,h or L he ) to see whether the flow is hydrodynamically fully developed. (fully developed flow vs. developing) Calculate thermal entrance length (x fd,t or L te ) to determine whether the flow is thermally fully developed. We need to find average heat transfer coefficient to use in U calculation in place of h i or h o. Average Nusselt number can be obtained from an appropriate correlation. Nu = f(Re, Pr) We need to determine some properties and plug them into the correlation. These properties are generally either evaluated at mean (bulk) fluid temperature or at wall temperature. Each correlation should also specify this.

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Heat transfer enhancement Enhancement Increase the convection coefficient Introduce surface roughness to enhance turbulence. Induce swirl. Increase the convection surface area Longitudinal fins, spiral fins or ribs.

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Heat transfer enhancement Helically coiled tube Without inducing turbulence or additional heat transfer surface area. Secondary flow

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