Presentation on theme: "Estimation of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient"— Presentation transcript:
1 Estimation of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
2 Convective heat transfer coefficient Convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is predicted from empirical correlations.The coefficient is influenced by such parameters as type and velocity of fluid, physical properties of fluid, temperature difference, and the geometrical shape of the physical system underconsideration.Dimensional analysis is used to develop empirical correlations that allow estimation of h.Following correlations apply to Newtonian fluids only. For expression for non-Newtonian fluids, the textbook by Heldman and Singh (1981) is recommended.
3 Force convectionFluid is forced to move over an object by external mechanical meansNNu = (NRe, NPr)Where NNu = Nusselt number = hD/kh = convective heat-transfer coefficient (W/ m2oC)D = characteristic dimension (m)k = thermal conductivity (W/moC)NRe = Reynolds number = uD/ NPr = Prandtl number = Cp/k
4 Laminar flow in horizontal pipes When Reynolds number < 2100DLFor (NRe x NPr x ) 100DLFor (NRe x NPr x ) > 100All physical properties are evaluated at bulk fluid temp. except w is at surface temp of wall.D = characteristic dimension = diameter of pipe
5 ExampleWater flowing at a rate of 0.02 kg/s is heated from 20 to 60C in a horizontal pipe (inside diameter = 2.5 cm). The inside pipe surface temperature is 90C. Estimate h if the pipe is 1 m long.
6 Transition flow in horizontal pipes When Reynolds number between 2100 and 10000
7 Turbulent flow in horizontal pipe When Reynolds number > 10000All physical properties are evaluated at bulk fluid temp. except w is at surface temp of wall.D = characteristic dimension = diameter of pipe
8 ExampleWater flowing at a rate of 0.2 kg/s is heated from 20 to 60C in a horizontal pipe (inside diameter = 2.5 cm). The inside pipe surface temperature is 90C. Estimate h if the pipe is 1 m long.
9 ExampleWhat is the expected percent increase in convective heat transfer coefficient if the velocity of the fluid is doubled while all other related parameters are kept the same for turbulent flow in a pipe.
10 Convection in non-circular ducts Equations for circular tube with hydraulic diameter
11 Flow past immersed objects For flat plateFor cylinderif fluid is gas NNu = C NReif fluid is liquid NNu = C NRenNPr1/3NNu = NRe NPr1/31/2NReCn0.4-44-400.9890.9110.6830.1930.02660.3300.3850.4660.6180.805
13 Flow past immersed objects For single sphereNNu = NRe0.5 X NPr1/3where 1 < NRe < 70,0000.6 < NPr < 400Fluid properties are evaluated at film temperature (Tf) whereTf = (Twall + Tmedium) / 2
14 ExampleCalculate convective heat transfer coefficient when air at 90C is passed through a deep bed of green peas. Assume surface temperature of a pea to be 30C. The diameter of each pea is 0.5 cm. The velocity of air through the bed is 0.3 m/s.
15 Free convectionFree convection occurs due to density differences in fluids as they come into contact with a heated surface. The low density of fluid at a higher temperature causes buoyancy forces, and as a result, heated fluid moves upward and colder fluid takes its place
16 hD k NNu = = a (NGr NPr)m where a, m = constants NGr = Grashof number = D32gT/2D = characteristic dimension (m) = coefficient of volumetric expansion (K-1)T = Temperature difference between wall and surrounding bulk (oC)All physical properties are evaluated at film temperature (Tf = (Tw+Tb)/2)
20 ExampleEstimate the convective heat transfer coefficient for convective heat loss from a horizontal 10 cm diameter stem pipe. The surface temperature of the uninsulated pipe is 130C, and the air temperature is 30C
22 1. Forced Convection Flow Inside a Circular Tube All properties at fluid bulk mean temperature (arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet temperature).Nusselt numbers Nu0 from sections 1-1 to 1-3 have to be corrected for temperature-dependent fluid properties according to section 1-4.
24 1-2 Simultaneously developing laminar flow (Re < 2300) Constant wall temperature:(Stephan)Constant wall heat flux:which is valid over the range 0.7 < Pr < 7 or if Re Pr D/L < 33 also for Pr > 7.
25 1-3 Fully developed turbulent and transition flow (Re > 2300) Constant wall heat flux:(Petukhov, Gnielinski)whereConstant wall temperature:For fluids with Pr > 0.7 correlation for constant wall heat flux can be used with negligible error.
26 1-4 Effects of property variation with temperature Liquids, laminar and turbulent flow:Subscript w: at wall temperature, without subscript: at mean fluid temperatureGases, laminar flow: Nu = Nu0Gases, turbulent flow:Temperatures in Kelvin
27 2. Forced Convection Flow Inside Concentric Annular Ducts, Turbulent (Re > 2300) All properties at fluid bulk mean temperature (arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet temperature).Dh = Do - Di
28 Heat transfer at the inner wall, outer wall insulated: (Petukhov and Roizen)Heat transfer at the outer wall, inner wall insulated:Heat transfer at both walls, same wall temperatures:(Stephan)
29 Equations for circular tube with hydraulic diameter 3. Forced Convection Flow Inside Non-Circular Ducts, Turbulent (Re > 2300)Equations for circular tube with hydraulic diameter
30 4. Forced Convection Flow Across Single Circular Cylinders D = cylinder diameter, um = free-stream velocity, all properties at fluid bulk mean temperature.
31 4-1 Smooth circular cylinder Valid over the ranges 10 < Rel < 107 and 0.6 < Pr < 1000 (Gnielinski)where
32 4-2 Effects of property variation with temperature Liquids:Subscript w: at wall temperature,without subscript: at mean fluid temperature.Gases:Temperatures in Kelvin.
33 5. Forced Convection Flow over a Flat Plate All properties at mean film temperature
34 Laminar boundary layer, constant wall temperature: (Pohlhausen) valid for ReL < 2x105, 0.6 < Pr < 10Turbulent boundary layer along the whole plate, constant wall temperature: (Petukhov)Boundary layer with laminar-turbulent transition:(Gnielinski)
35 L = characteristic length 6. Natural ConvectionAll properties at L = characteristic length