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Q uality A ssurance Concepts & Principles. Quality Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Q uality A ssurance Concepts & Principles. Quality Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Q uality A ssurance Concepts & Principles

2 Quality Management

3 Quality Management is a method for ensuring that all activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance

4 Quality. Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill its requirements (ISO 9000) Conformance to requirements (Philip Crosby 1980s) Fitness for use (Joseph Juran)

5 Management. The system of managing with steps like planning, organizing, implementation and control (Wikipedia) Management comprises planning, organizing, resourcing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management can also refer to the person or people who perform the act(s) of management.

6 Quality Management Movement Prior to World War I Quality was viewed predominantly as Inspection, sorting the good items from the bad Early 1950s Emphasis still on sorting good items from bad but quality control principles were emerging 1950s s Quality control evolved to quality assurance with emphasis on problem avoidance rather than problem detection

7 Quality Management Movement Today Emphasis is on strategic quality management Quality is defined by the customer Quality is linked with profitability on both market and cost sides Quality has become a competitive weapon Quality is now an integral part of the strategic planning process Quality requires an organization wide commitment

8 Total Quality Management is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes (Wikipedia) TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society (ISO)

9 Quality Management 1 Quality Planning 2 Perform Quality Assurance 3 Perform Quality Control Before the (production) process After the (production) process During the (production) process Focused on setting quality objectives and necessary processes that will ensure achievement of quality objectives Monitoring specific results to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identify ways to eliminate unsatisfactory results Application of planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that all processes employed will meet requirements and standards ¨Do the right things¨ ¨Do things right¨¨Done the right things right¨

10 Quality Management 1 Quality Planning 2 Perform Quality Assurance 3 Perform Quality Control Before the (production) process After the (production) process During the (production) process ¨Do the right things¨ ¨Do things right¨ ¨Done the right things right¨ Q uality M anagement

11 Quality Management Principles 1. Customer Focus Organizations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations. Applying the Principle of Customer Focus typically leads to: Researching and understanding customer needs and expectations; Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are linked to customer needs and expectations; Communicating customer needs and expectations throughout the organization; Measuring customer satisfaction and acting on the results; Systematically managing customer relationships; Ensuring a balanced approached between satisfying customers and other interested parties.

12 Who is your customer?

13 Quality Management Principles 2. Leadership Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organization. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organization's objectives. Applying the Principle of Leadership typically leads to: Considering the needs of all interested parties including customers, owners, employees, suppliers, financiers, local communities as a whole Establishing a clear vision of the organization's future Setting challenging goals and targets Inspiring, encouraging and recognizing people's contribution

14 Quality Management Principles 3. Involvement of People People at all levels are the essence of an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization's benefit. Applying the Principle of Involvement of People typically leads to: People understanding the importance of their contribution and role in the organization People identifying constraints to their performance People accepting ownership of problems and their responsibility for solving them People freely sharing knowledge and experience

15 Quality Management Principles Applying the Principle of Process Approach typically leads to: Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a desired result Establishing clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities Analyzing and measuring of the capability of key activities Identifying the interfaces of key activities within and between the functions of the organization Focusing on the factors such as resources, methods and materials that will improve key activities of the organization 4. Process Approach A desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.

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17 Quality Management Principles 5. System Approach to Management Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization's effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives Applying the Principle of System Approach to Management typically leads to: Structuring a system to achieve the organization's objectives in the most effective and efficient way Understanding the interdependencies between the processes of the system Structured approaches that harmonize and integrate processes Provide a better understanding of roles and responsibilities Continually improving the system through measurement and evaluation

18 ¨Minute changes create additional changes that are not always predictable. It is important to examine the multiple interactions within a system rather than focus on the individual components understand that constant review of change is needed to accurately change and foster additional growth within each affected system.¨ -David Aloyzy Zera

19 Central Level RegionLevel DivisionLevel DistrictLevel SchoolLevel Learning Center Level ClassroomLevel LearnerLevel Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Detect the problems and issues as they occur Detect problems and issues where they occur Determine the forward and backward implications of problems and issues as they occur Determine the causes of the problems and issues Determine possible effect of policies and opportunities to the entire system Determine the adjustments in the entire system and at each sub system of policies and opportunities Determine what chain is strong and what needs strengthening 1.0 Systems Perspective: Strengthening the Education Delivery System twg - qaaf

20 Central Level RegionLevel DivisionLevel DistrictLevel SchoolLevel Learning Center Level ClassroomLevel LearnerLevel Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders What is the strongest chain? Where is the strongest chain? When is the chain strong? Who in the chain is strong? Why is the chain strong? What is the weakest chain? Where is the weakest chain? When is the chain weak? Who in the chain is weak? Why is the chain weak? 1.0 Systems Perspective: Strengthening the Education Delivery System twg - qaaf

21 Central Level RegionLevel DivisionLevel DistrictLevel SchoolLevel Learning Center Level ClassroomLevel LearnerLevel Stakeholders Stakeholders Stakeholders Determine strong and weak points of the system Systems Consideration Strengthening the link between levels Determine when and why the system is weak Detect when and where the system is weak. Identify potential problems and its implications Proactive approach to managing issues and concerns

22 Quality Management Principles Applying the Principle of Continual Improvement typically leads to: Establishing a consistent organization wide approach to continual improvement of the organization's performance Making continual improvement of products, processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organization Establishing goals to guide, and measures to track, continual improvement Recognizing and acknowledging improvements 6. Continual Improvement Continual improvement of the organization's overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organization

23 Pre School Level Grades Grades st Year High School 2 nd Year High School 3 rd Year High School 4 th Year High School Learners entering Grade 1 level are ready: socially, emotionally and mentally Learners at the end of Grade 3 demonstrates basic reading & numeracy skills including physical & social skills At the end of Grade 6, Learners demonstrate basic functional literacy skills Learners at 2 nd Year HS demonstrate interdisciplinary skills and show more interest in understanding/involvement to community concerns At the end of 4 th Year HS, learners demonstrate enhanced communication skills, critical problem solving skills, productivity, self development, sense of community and vision Learners' Achievement

24 1 st Grading Period 2 nd Grading Period 3 rd Grading Period 4 th Grading Period JunJulAugSepOctNovDecJanFebMarAprMay Inventory of least mastered skills Profiling of Students Quality Assurance - Learners Performance Start of SY Achievement Retention Remediation Participation Achievement- Retention- Remediation- Participation

25 Quality Management Principles 7. Factual Approach to Decision Making Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information. Applying the Principle of Factual Approach to Decision Making typically leads to: Ensuring that data and information are sufficiently accurate and reliable Making data accessible to those who need it Analyzing data and information using valid methods Making decisions and taking action based on factual analysis, balanced with experience and institution

26 Quality Management Principles Applying the Principle of Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships typically leads to: Establishing relationships that balance short term goals with long term considerations Pooling of expertise and resources with partners Clear and open communication Sharing information and future plans Establishing joint development and improvement activities 8. Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships An organization and its suppliers are interdependent and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value.

27 QAAF Operation 1 Quality Planning 2 Perform Quality Assurance 3 Perform Quality Control Education Planning Evaluation of Outcomes Delivery of Basic Education Services ¨Do the right things¨ ¨Do things right¨ ¨Done the right things right¨ Putting the QAAF into Operation


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