Defining RPL to quantify for occupational credit Recognition of prior learning means the comparison of the previous learning and experience of a learner howsoever obtained against the learning outcomes required for a specified qualification, and the acceptance for purposes of qualification of that which meets the requirements. (SAQA, 2001).
RPL to quantify for occupational credit …..the increasing recognition that universities do not have a monopoly over high-level knowledge production – that the modes and sites for such knowledge production are becoming increasingly diverse and/or integrated. The growing recognition that there are multiple literacies and that academic literacy should not necessarily be the only way of demonstrating competence is also part of this trend. UWC RPL Policy 31 October 2000
Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process. - SAQA Foundational competence: the candidates demonstration of reasonable understanding of what is done and the reason as to why it is done relates to foundational competence. Practical competence: means that a candidate should demonstrate the ability to know how to execute a task and be aware of the decision-making processes involved.
Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process. - SAQA Reflexive competence: is the ability to synthesise foundational and practical competencies in ways that reflect performance and decision-making integration and adaptability to change. Applied competence: refers to the candidates ability to put into practice the learning outcomes shown when obtaining an accreditation (SAQA, 2001:20-21).
REVISED AND NEW LEGISLATION New NQF Act, 2008 to replace SAQA Act One NQF, 3 sub-frameworks Provides for QCs responsible for each sub-framework Includes both qualification design and quality assurance Amended: Higher Education Act General and Further Education & Training Act Skills Development Act, Source: DHET
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT, 2008 (AMENDED) Establishes an integrated framework for skill development based on occupations. Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO) forms basis for: Recognition of Scarce and Critical skills by SETAs – feeds into Employment Services South Africa (ESSA) system Linking job-seekers to job opportunities National scarce skills list Source: DHET 7
SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT, 2008 (AMENDED) Ensuring fit for purpose occupational qualifications Establishment of QCTO as juristic person Own sub-framework for trades and occupations (one of three sub-frameworks within NQF) Responsible for development and quality assurance of Occupational Qualifications - through Quality Partners Addressing skills needs: Registration of Learning Programs (Learnerships, Apprenticeships & Skills Programs) 8 Source: DHET
RPL to quantify for occupational credit Quality Assurance Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO) is the new body responsible for the quality assurance of occupational qualifications The OFO is a skill-based coded classification system, which encompasses all occupations in the South African context. The classification of occupations is based on a combination of skill level and skill specialisation which makes it easy to locate a specific occupation within the framework
QCTO – CHANGES IN THE SYSTEM ? Qualification Types – centers on occupations (Occupations consist of trades and professions) Occupational curriculum – centers on coherent provision and internal assessment External assessment – centers on occupational competence Nationally Standardised Integrated - DHET 10
Two types of occupational qualification National Occupational Award For occupations or groups of occupations National Skills Certificate Specializations Elementary occupations (OFO Skill Level 1) Occupationally relevant skills set The QCTO may delegate specific quality assurance activities to suitable agencies, primarily the Seta's (Sector Education Training Authorities) and other bodies who choose to work with the QCTO.
Occupational Qualification Constructed from an occupational profile produced by SME specialists Competency Based Based on skills (experience) and specialised knowledge Results in competent as Real time experience i.e hours work is required prior to certification
RPL to quantify for occupational credit - OFO It is important to note that a job and occupation are not the same. The following definitions are applied in the OFO: A) Job is seen as a set of roles and tasks designed to be performed by one individual for an employer (including self- employment) in return for payment or profit. b) Occupation is seen as a set of jobs or specialisations whose main tasks are characterised by such a high degree of similarity that they can be grouped together for the purposes of the classification.
Occupational Qualifications Framework (OQF) The rationale of this OQF is to make available recognition for the achievement of occupational competence and consequential skills sets The award of occupational qualifications will be based on a simplified assessment process. Occupational qualifications will be awarded on the basis of a final integrated summative assessment of occupational competence, similar to trade tests or Board exams. (Vorwerk 2007)
Catalysts & Inhibitors to creating a conducive environment for RPL
RPL Value in SAs current context South Africa requires high performance workplaces to compete globally Evolution of the Knowledge Economy / Knowledge Occupations Innovation requirements in a global economic context / global competitiveness Human Capital must meet workplace demands
Unemployment Rates In South Africa: Race & Gender 47% 53% Source: Professor HAROON BHORAT
Skills-Biased Employment Growth: 1 Skilled Employment: Share increased from 9 to 11% Semi-skilled Employment: Share increased from 59 to 61% Unskilled Employment: Share declined from 31 to 27% Source: Professor HAROON BHORAT
RPL Value in SAs current context Accessibility, diversity, credit for workplace learning, articulation, transferability The divergence of formal and informal learning assessment activities Within the academic community, evaluating existing knowledge and skills against broad programme learning outcomes has limited application i.e. access / partial credit (max 50% residency requirement and 10% for access)
RPL Value in SAs current context SAs Human Capital Skills shortage = labour market shortages in specific trades and specific professional occupations A growing awareness for the need to look at both formal and informal credentials w.r.t knowledge and skills to determine the competencies of the SA labour force Legacy of labour experience without access to formal education
Inhibitors Legislative / Regulatory Framework Transferability in FET/HET Academic Environment Barriers to entry / access to RPL Over complex process / cumbersome / misunderstood Incorrect candidates being presented Workplace Un-responsiveness & unwillingness to accept RPL
Inhibitors Lack of a rigorous Quality Assurance Framework in all ETQAs - …since RPL is a contested area, it is necessary that stringent quality assurance measures, in defense of the integrity of the process be considered as the norm rather than the exception. Heyns (2004:118) Quality assurance is defined as the degree of confidence that students and partner agencies have in relation to the perceived practice (Nyatanga et al 1998:30).
Inhibitors Economies of Scale - Cost / Group vs. Individual (Expensive for individual applicants) Psycho-social impact of employment discrimination (For qualifications earned by RPL and not traditional methods) Inexperienced RPL Advisors, Assessors, Internal Moderators & External Moderators that are not SMEs, Perceived ambiguity of RPL process Unrealistic expectations
Catalysts Workplace Competiveness. Succession Planning, Career Planning and Development Promotional opportunities - socio-economic status improved Social justice & Transformation – unemployed and academically deprived individuals are afforded opportunities to codify knowledge and experience
Catalysts Personal Development including promotional opportunities & Life Long Learning Reduces cost and time of standard SP, LP/Qualification acquisition - acknowledges value of learning outside a formal setting Eliminates unnecessary duplication of learning (acquired knowledge, skill and behaviour) Access and Articulation & Credential Recognition Diagnostic Assessment – Gaps identified and interventions recommended / implemented
National Certificate: Labour Relations Practice SAQA : ID: Old NQF Level: Level 5 New NQF Level: New Level Assignment Pend Quality Assuring Body: SERVICES - Services Sector Education and Training Authority
National Diploma: Labour Relations Practice: Dispute Resolution SAQA ID: Old NQF Level: Level 5 New NQF Level: New Level Assignment Pend. Quality Assuring Body: SERVICES - Services Sector Education and Training Authority
Planned NQF 4 - Labour Relations Qualification NQF 6 – Labour Relations Qualification