Presentation on theme: "Opportunities and changes in Workplace RPL"— Presentation transcript:
1 Opportunities and changes in Workplace RPL Presentation to NABCOpportunities and changes in Workplace RPLDeonita Damons &Dr. Linda Meyer
2 Defining RPL to quantify for occupational credit Recognition of prior learning means the comparison of the previous learning and experience of a learner howsoever obtained against the learning outcomes required for a specified qualification, and the acceptance for purposes of qualification of that which meets the requirements’. (SAQA, 2001).
3 RPL to quantify for occupational credit “…..the increasing recognition that universities do not have a monopoly over high-level knowledge production – that the modes and sites for such knowledge production are becoming increasingly diverse and/or integrated.The growing recognition that there are multiple literacies and that academic literacy should not necessarily be the only way of demonstrating competence is also part of this trend.”UWC RPL Policy 31 October 2000
4 Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process. - SAQAFoundational competence: the candidate’s demonstration of reasonable understanding of what is done and the reason as to why it is done relates to foundational competence.Practical competence: means that a candidate should demonstrate the ability to know how to execute a task and be aware of the decision-making processes involved.
5 Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process Four levels of competencies should be assessed in the RPL process. - SAQAReflexive competence: is the ability to synthesise foundational and practical competencies in ways that reflect performance and decision-making integration and adaptability to change.Applied competence: refers to the candidate’s ability to put into practice the learning outcomes shown when obtaining an accreditation (SAQA, 2001:20-21).
6 REVISED AND NEW LEGISLATION New NQF Act, 2008 to replace SAQA ActOne NQF, 3 sub-frameworksProvides for QCs responsible for each sub-frameworkIncludes both qualification design and quality assuranceAmended:Higher Education ActGeneral and Further Education & Training ActSkills Development Act, 2008Source: DHET
7 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT, 2008 (AMENDED) Establishes an integrated framework for skill development based on occupations.Organising Framework for Occupations (OFO) forms basis for:Recognition of Scarce and Critical skills by SETA’s – feeds intoEmployment Services South Africa (ESSA) systemLinking job-seekers to job opportunitiesNational scarce skills listSource: DHET
8 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ACT, 2008 (AMENDED) Ensuring fit for purpose occupational qualificationsEstablishment of QCTO as juristic personOwn sub-framework for trades and occupations (one of three sub-frameworks within NQF)Responsible for development and quality assurance of Occupational Qualifications - through Quality PartnersAddressing skills needs:Registration of Learning Programs (Learnerships, Apprenticeships & Skills Programs)Source: DHET
9 RPL to quantify for occupational credit Quality Assurance Council for Trades and Occupations (QCTO) is the new body responsible for the quality assurance of occupational qualificationsThe OFO is a skill-based coded classification system, which encompasses all occupations in the South African context. The classification of occupations is based on a combination of skill level and skill specialisation which makes it easy to locate a specific occupation within the framework
10 QCTO – CHANGES IN THE SYSTEM ? Ways of seeing the QCTO2017/03/22QCTO – CHANGES IN THE SYSTEM ?Qualification Types – centers on occupations (Occupations consist of trades and professions)Occupational curriculum – centers on coherent provision and internal assessmentExternal assessment – centers on occupational competenceNationally StandardisedIntegrated - DHETKnowledge = knowledge required to develop, produce or provide the products or services)Practical skills = skills required, i.e. what must be done to develop, produce or provide the products or servicesWork Experience = the work experience requiredThe National Career Path Framework
11 Two types of occupational qualification National Occupational AwardFor occupations or groups of occupationsNational Skills CertificateSpecializationsElementary occupations (OFO Skill Level 1)Occupationally relevant skills setThe QCTO may delegate specific quality assurance activities to suitable agencies, primarily the Seta's (Sector Education Training Authorities) and other bodies who choose to work with the QCTO.
12 Occupational Qualification Constructed from an occupational profile produced by SME specialistsCompetency BasedBased on skills (experience) and specialised knowledgeResults in “competent as”Real time experience i.e hours work is required prior to certification
13 RPL to quantify for occupational credit - OFO It is important to note that a ‘job’ and ‘occupation’ are not the same. The following definitions are applied in the OFO:A) ‘Job’ is seen as a set of roles and tasks designed to be performed by one individual for an employer (including self-employment) in return for payment or profit.b) ‘Occupation’ is seen as a set of jobs or specialisations whose main tasks are characterised by such a high degree of similarity that they can be grouped together for the purposes of the classification.
14 Occupational Qualifications Framework (OQF) The rationale of this OQF is to make available recognition for the achievement of occupational competence and consequential skills setsThe award of occupational qualifications will be based on a simplified assessment process.Occupational qualifications will be awarded on the basis of a final integrated summative assessment of occupational competence, similar to trade tests or ‘Board exams’.(Vorwerk 2007)FAQ - QctoHow will the QCTO quality assure learner achievements?The QCTO will seek quality partners (statutory and non-statutory professional bodies, occupational associations, legislated boards, SETAs, etc) appropriate to each group of related occupational qualifications. It will appoint national moderating bodies in this context, which will be delegated certain quality assurance responsibilities.The QCTO’s qualifications will always include a work experience component to ensure that learners are competent to do something that is required and recognised in the labour market.The QCTO’s qualifications will also link, where appropriate, to other qualifications obtained at schools, colleges or universities. While QCTO qualifications will specify all the learning requirements, they will also provide exemption for certain of the learning components where the learner has obtained a related qualification.Some occupational qualifications may contain all three learning components while others will exempt learners from portions of the qualification if they have acquired a relevant qualification elsewhere.The common/ core learning w ill in most cases be similar for a group of occupations, w hile the specialised learning w ill relate to the occupation itself or to a specialisation related to that occupation
15 Catalysts & Inhibitors to creating a conducive environment for RPL
16 RPL Value in SA’s current context South Africa requires high performance workplaces to compete globallyEvolution of the Knowledge Economy / Knowledge OccupationsInnovation requirements in a global economic context / global competitivenessHuman Capital must meet workplace demandsPaul Bouchard in his article entitled, Training and Work: Myths about Human Capital, argues there are no skill shortages, rather there is a skill mismatch (Bouchard, P, 1998)
17 Unemployment Rates In South Africa: Race & Gender 53%47%Source: Professor HAROON BHORAT
18 Skills-Biased Employment Growth: 1 Skilled Employment: Share increased from 9 to 11%Semi-skilled Employment: Share increased from 59 to 61%Unskilled Employment: Share declined from 31 to 27%Source: Professor HAROON BHORAT
19 RPL Value in SA’s current context Accessibility, diversity, credit for workplace learning, articulation, transferabilityThe divergence of formal and informal learning assessment activitiesWithin the academic community, evaluating existing knowledge and skills against broad programme learning outcomes has limited application i.e. access / partial credit (max 50% residency requirement and 10% for access)The HEQCs position is for its constituents to use RPL for purposes of access only, i.e. ease of entry into higher education learning as recommended by Castle and Attwood (2001) in their article entitled: “RPL for access or credit: problematic issues”.
20 RPL Value in SA’s current context SA’s Human Capital Skills shortage = labour market shortages in specific trades and specific professional occupationsA growing awareness for the need to look at both formal and informal credentials w.r.t knowledge and skills to determine the competencies of the SA labour forceLegacy of labour experience without access to formal educationPaul Bouchard in his article entitled, Training and Work: Myths about Human Capital, argues there are no skill shortages, rather there is a skill mismatch (Bouchard, P, 1998)RPL was conceptualised by the South African government as a key strategy for achieving the objectives of the NQF, which are access and redress.RPL is a statutory obligation, promulgated by these acts: The South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA3) Act (Act 58 of 1995); The Employment Equity Act (Act 55 of 1998); and The Skills Development Act (Act 97 of 1998).
21 Inhibitors Transferability in FET/HET Academic Environment Legislative / Regulatory FrameworkTransferability in FET/HET Academic EnvironmentBarriers to entry / access to RPLOver complex process / cumbersome / misunderstoodIncorrect candidates being presentedWorkplace Un-responsiveness & unwillingness to accept RPLOften assessment processes/ procedures are elaborate, costly and highly bureaucratized, placing little or no value on work experience gained outside Canada (Reitz, 2001).
22 InhibitorsLack of a rigorous Quality Assurance Framework in all ETQA’s- ‘…since RPL is a contested area, it is necessary that stringent quality assurance measures, in defense of the integrity of the process be considered as the norm rather than the exception’. Heyns (2004:118)Quality assurance is defined as “the degree of confidence that students and partner agencies have in relation to the perceived practice” (Nyatanga et al 1998:30).Often assessment processes/ procedures are elaborate, costly and highly bureaucratized, placing little or no value on work experience gained outside Canada (Reitz, 2001).For RPL ‘doing it right’ means having in place the infrastructure and processes for the maintenance and continuous improvement of the RPL practice. Quality Assurance on the other hand, rests on the principle of prevention of quality problems during the implementation process, rather5Introduction and OverviewChapter 1than the detection of these problems as in Quality Control. A Quality Management System (QMS) means a systematic way of guaranteeing that organised activities happen the way they are planned (Bell, McBride & Wilson 1994:3; Lewis & Smith 1993:28; Goddard & Leask 1992:5; Miller 1991:16; Huge 1990:4; Crosby 1979:22).(SAQA 2002:16-30; Heyns 2004; & Osman 2004). These inputs, grouped into ten areas of practice, are: Institutional policy and environment; •Resources (physical, financial, and human) allocated for RPL services; •Training and registration of RPL assessors and other key staff; •Funding for the establishment of the RPL process; •Support services to RPL candidates/learners; •Monitoring, evaluation and verification processes of RPL provisioning; •Methods and processes of RPL assessment; •Establishment of learner records and the reporting system to the relevant ETQA; •RPL and curriculum design, qualifications and academic standards; and •Approach to quality and quality assurance
23 InhibitorsEconomies of Scale - Cost / Group vs. Individual (Expensive for individual applicants)Psycho-social impact of employment discrimination (For qualifications earned by RPL and not traditional methods)Inexperienced RPL Advisors, Assessors, Internal Moderators & External Moderators that are not SME’s,Perceived ambiguity of RPL processUnrealistic expectations
24 Catalysts Workplace Competiveness. Succession Planning, Career Planning and Development Promotional opportunities - socio-economic status improvedSocial justice & Transformation – unemployed and academically deprived individuals are afforded opportunities to codify knowledge and experienceValidates learning gained through work and life experienceLearners to make judgments concerning their own knowledge and skillsAt country level, Harris and Saddington (1995:7) state that in terms of the current political, economic and social context in the country, RPL has the capacity to “contribute to redress and equity by opening up more ways for people to attain qualified status (qualifications); enable more people to reach higher levels of qualification and expertise by beginning with an acknowledgement of existing skills and knowledge; contribute to enhancing international economic competitiveness by building on often invisible and unacknowledged workplace skills; and offer the first step in attaining the goal of developing a multi-skilled and flexible workforce by acting as an auditing tool to qualify existing competence”.
25 CatalystsPersonal Development including promotional opportunities & Life Long LearningReduces cost and time of standard SP, LP/Qualification acquisition - acknowledges value of learning outside a formal settingEliminates unnecessary duplication of learning (acquired knowledge, skill and behaviour)Access and Articulation & Credential RecognitionDiagnostic Assessment – Gaps identified and interventions recommended / implemented
26 National Certificate: Labour Relations Practice SAQA : ID: 48641Old NQF Level: Level 5New NQF Level: New Level Assignment PendQuality Assuring Body: SERVICES - Services Sector Education and Training Authority
27 National Diploma: Labour Relations Practice: Dispute Resolution SAQA ID: 49784Old NQF Level: Level 5New NQF Level: New Level Assignment Pend.Quality Assuring Body: SERVICES - Services Sector Education and Training Authority