Presentation on theme: "Occupational Competence: A Curriculum Model"— Presentation transcript:
1 Occupational Competence: A Curriculum Model Santa De Jager and Christoph VorwerkGerman Technical Co-operation (GTZ) – SDSISouthern African Society for Co-operative Education, Vereeniging, South Africa, April 2006
2 Introduction South African economy characterised by acute skills shortages on the one hand andhigh unemployment rates on the otherconsiderable uncertainty amongst institutions old and new (eg, Sector Education and Training Authorities or SETAs), employers and learners.Older models and practices appear to be out of stepwith the new requirements,the new institutionsthe new delivery options such as learnerships.
3 Purpose of Paper Present a curriculum model Clarify the nature and requirements of learning required for occupational competencepart of systemic approachbased on three modes of learningfor achieving occupational competence.Benefits of model
4 What is Skills Development? Skills development is the learning process leading to occupational competenceOccupational competence requires application in context, iework experience in a real-life, real-time working environment.Definition:In this paper the term ‘occupations’ also includes trades and professionsSee Chapter 2, paragraph 22 of Bill of Rights
5 Between labour market and education system Systemic DisconnectBetween labour market and education systemeducation institutions and training programmesemployer expectations or labour market needs on the otherAt different levels of the systemMacro – policy & strategyMeso – partnerships and rolesMicro – provider, workplaceDefinitionlabour market and workplacewe mean this in the broadest sense, wherever people engage in economic and social development activities
6 No systemic link between the labour market and NQF Labour Market ActorsOccupationsSETA’sProf BodiesEconomySociety?The ‘Disconnect’Labour MarketQualificationsNQFSGBsProvider systemETQAsSAQANeedsFlow of Skills
7 The Re-connectTo reconnect the labour market and the education and training system, propose the followingOrganising Framework of Occupationscapture skills development needsroles, tasks, changes in occupational patternsNational Career Path FrameworkOrganise occupational groups, show progression, articulation,National Qualifications Framework (NQF)Curriculum Modelstructure education training interventionsProposals:at a strategic level would be about prioritising scarce and critical skillsat sectoral level SETAs would structure their incentives in order to encourage and focus stakeholder and provider effortsat a local level providers would engage with sites to provide the requisite work experience
8 Flow of information, trends, scarce & critical skills priorities EconomyOrganising Framework OccupationsNational Career Path FrameworkLabour MarketSGBsNeedsSocietyNQFFlow of SkillsOccupationsProvider systemCurriculum Model for Occupational CompetenceQuality assurance, impact assessment, management
9 Misconceptions about learnerships Learnership is a new type of qualificationLearning only takes place in the workplaceOccupational competence achieved through learnerships means an inevitable sacrificing of academic standards
10 Learnerships A learnership is a learning programme which: consists of a structured learning component;includes practical work experience of a specified nature and duration; andresults in a qualification registered by the South African Qualifications Authority, andrelates to an occupation.
11 A learnership is one route to an occupational qualification National Certificate NQF Level XNational Certificate NQF Level XLearnership1Learnership2Experiential learningSkillsProgrammesCertificateCourseInternshipCoursesRPLExperienceCoursesRPLRPLRPLInternshipInternshipExperienceExperienceCertificateCertificateCourseCourseCoursesSkillsSkillsLearnershipLearnershipLearnershipLearnershipBTech22ProgrammesProgrammesCourses11
12 Key features of a learnership Learner is employed and has workplace exposure during the formal education and training processesThe work experience component must be specified, planned for and assessed
13 Key problem in implementing learnerships At heart of disconnect at the operational level lies an implicit theory of provision:if I teach people enough of the right things, they will be able to do these things in contextProviders view workplace learning as informal, difficult to codify, therefore impossible to direct or evaluate.as a result experiential learning processes typically provide only vague guidelines to employers and learners to acquiring occupational competence
14 Curriculum model developed to Integrate education, training and workplace practiceBridge between formal education, formal training, practical training and workplace experience which lead to integrationBridge & basis of partnership betweenpublic education institutionsprivate education and training providersworkplacesProvide a common language for the development of learning programmes with an occupational intentimproves coherenceLearners achieve occupational competence
15 Occupational Competence The ability to perform activities in the jobs within an occupation, to the standards expected in employmentThree learning modes required1. Knowledgeacquisition(general and contextual)3. Workplace experience2. Developmentofpractical skillsIntegration of Education and TrainingCurriculum Model
16 Curriculum Model: Outline Collaboration is the key to coherence and integrationThe modes of learning need to be linked, woven together and reflected in the curriculumKnowledgePractical skillsPractical learning activitiesGeneral and occupationally relevant knowledge and theoryApplication(structured learning)SubjectsWorkplace experience(practice)Products/servicesSpecialised and contextual knowledge & theoryTopics
17 Knowledge learning component Knowledge - a series of topics that can be clustered into subjectsmust support and underpin, and enable the learner to successfully engage in, the practical activities leading to the development of skills.Much is applicable to the group of occupations, andspecialised knowledge applicable to the more specific occupations and contexts
18 Practical skills learning component Practical activities structured as modulesclass room exerciseslaboratory workhands on work in workshopsfield tripsassignmentsRole play, simulation, discussion groups…
19 Work experienceDevelops relevant skills applicable to the occupational competence within a specific contextReal-time, real lifeExperience the uncertainties, the challenges and the ambiguitiesReasonable period of time is essentialResults in the development or delivery ofproducts or servicesstructured as assignments or projectsunder guidance of practitionernot just dumped in workplace to sink or swim
20 Structure of the Curriculum Model Two partsPart 1the development of a curriculum framework for a group of related occupations that share similar general theory, knowledge and basic skillsPart 2the development of curricula for each occupation within that groupthe identification of specialised and contextual knowledge components
21 Applicability of the Model Programmes for occupational competence not new, no radical changes requiredWhat’s new is:to define, describe and quality assure learning in the workplace in relation to the formal learning processescombine institution-based and workplace-based learningflexibility to create programmes whichaccommodate learners with varying needs based on prior knowledge or experienceAdjust to sites and distances from institution
22 Application of the model Origin: Further Education and Training sector (FET) in order to implement learnerships.Successfully used to restructure a can-making apprenticeship into a series of learnershipsunit standards broken down into the smallest possible componentsgrouped to eliminate duplications
23 Developed curriculumClustered horizontally into meaningful units of learningGeneral theory and knowledge topicsPractical skills modulesSpecialised and contextual knowledge topicsWork experience modules– ie workplace practiceTopics and modules were grouped vertically into ‘subjectsExample
24 Benefits of the Model Same curriculum framework and core content used for a number of related occupationsDon’t need to develop one for each qualificationfor various different learning programmesLearnerships. skills programmes, internships.clarifies issues of articulation, portability and progressionProvides a structure for all role players to decide on issues related to delivery, funding, quality assurance, assessment
25 Work experienceStructure of work experience modules, assignment or projectsTitle:Purpose/RelevanceDurationOutcomes (tasks)MethodologyEvidence RequiredMethod of assessment and details of the assessment processList of resources
26 Reflections on the process Notable gap was that the trade theory subjectsOther gaps non-technical in nature eg basic principles of business, HIV/AIDs, team work.But illustrate the danger of a field of study focused approach – people skills not in domain of engineeringTopics under general knowledge and theory & many practical modules applicable for virtually any process that manufactures packaging, including glass, plastics and paper products.No difficulty in integrating all the product variations into the overall curriculumEasy to construct a management system to sequence learning, allocate responsibilities and review or develop materials.
27 Lessons for the Higher Education Sector Structures collaborative processes between all components of the delivery system:the curriculum developers, the education and training practitioners, other specialist training providers the employers, professional bodies and even the students.Sufficiently flexible to allow the development of various kinds of programme arrangementFacilitates the transition from a teacher-led paradigm to a learner-centred, outcomes- and occupational competence- based paradigm.Quality assurance of the learning process overall still lies with the primary institutionno loss of control when universities of technology engage in skills development processesWill improve the credibility of the programmethus the student’s ability to enter the occupational context or employment.
28 Impact assessment National Skills Development Strategy Department of Labour, 2005much greater emphasis on achieving targets (outcomes) &making an impact ie,real changes in the labour marketparticularly for vulnerable groupsSETAs, employers & partnering providers will have to:collect & report more information so that the government can evaluate and reconfigure policies and incentives where necessary
29 Quality assurance – change of focus Mouton proposes five reasons for interventions failing:The intervention is inappropriatenot addressing the real problemImplementation is poorpoor quality deliveryNot all members of the target group receive the intervention as planned or do not receive the same interventioninadequate coveragelack of standardisationThe intervention is appropriate, implementation is good but implementation is insufficientdiluted interventioninsufficient dosageThe intervention is good, implementation is good and sufficient, but the target group is not receptivelack of minimum necessary conditions for change (Mouton, 2003)
30 Not just the content of the teaching programme: Curriculum model links to an overall quality assurance system, includingthe programme purpose & designthe implementation strategythe programme processes and resourcesthe delivery and the learning activitiesthe specific needs of each target population.Not just the content of the teaching programme:also the purpose, the relevance, and the impact in the labour market of the programmesKey requirementsresponsiveness & relevanceeffectiveness, efficiencyimpact
31 The curriculum model tool for higher education institutions to: Conceptualise or re-conceptualise work-integrated learning programmes for the development of practical skillsManage of workplace experience and practiceEngage pro-actively & productively with the world of workemployers, industry and professional associations, SETAs and communities)Re-establish a connection to the labour marketEnsure the quality of education and training in and for the workplaceLink directly to the national programmes (JIPSA, NSDS) & contribute to the reduction of skills shortages & alleviation of un- and under-employment