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**Concentrations of Solutions**

Prentice-Hall Chapter 16.2 Dr. Yager

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**Objectives Solve problems involving the molarity of a solution**

Describe the effect of dilution on the total moles of solute in solution Define percent by volume and percent by mass

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Molarity

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**To make a 0. 5 molar (0. 5M) solution, first add 0**

To make a 0.5 molar (0.5M) solution, first add 0.5 mol of solute to a 1-L volumetric flask half filled with distilled water.

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**Swirl the flask carefully to dissolve the solute.**

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**Fill the flask with water exactly to the 1-Liter mark.**

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**A solution has a volume of 2. 0 L and contains 36**

A solution has a volume of 2.0 L and contains 36.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6). If the molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol, what is the molarity of the solution?

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Household laundry bleach is a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). How many moles of solute are present in 1.5 L of 0.07 M NaClO?

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**How many moles of solute are in 250 ml of 2. 0M CaCl2**

How many moles of solute are in 250 ml of 2.0M CaCl2? How many grams of CaCl2 is this?

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The concentration of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. A dilute solution is one that contains a small amount of solute. A concentrated solution contains a large amount of solute.

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**Making Dilutions Key Idea**

Diluting a solution reduces the number of moles of solute per unit volume, but the total number of moles of solute in solution does not change.

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**The total number of moles of solute remains unchanged upon dilution, so you can write this equation.**

M1 and V1 are the molarity and volume of the initial solution, and M2 and V2 are the molarity and volume of the diluted solution.

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**Making a Dilute Solution**

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**To prepare 100 ml of 0. 40M MgSO4 from a stock solution of 2**

To prepare 100 ml of 0.40M MgSO4 from a stock solution of 2.0M MgSO4, a student first measures 20 mL of the stock solution with a 20- mL pipet.

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**She then transfers the 20 mL to a 100-mL volumetric flask.**

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**Finally she carefully adds water to the mark to make 100 mL of solution.**

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**Volume-Measuring Devices**

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**How many milliliters of a solution of 4**

How many milliliters of a solution of 4.00 M KI are needed to prepare ml of M KI? M1 x V1 = M2 x V2 4.00 M x V1 = M x ml V1 = 47.5 ml

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Percent Solutions The concentration of a solution in percent can be expressed in two ways: as the ratio of the volume of the solute to the volume of the solution or as the ratio of the mass of the solute to the mass of the solution.

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**Concentration in Percent (Volume/Volume)**

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**Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) is sold as a 91% solution**

Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) is sold as a 91% solution. This solution consist of 91 mL of isopropyl alcohol mixed with enough water to make 100 mL of solution.

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**A bottle of the antiseptic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is labeled 3**

A bottle of the antiseptic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is labeled 3.0% (v/v). How many milliliters of H2O2 are in a ml bottle of this solution?

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**Concentration in Percent (Mass/Mass)**

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**A bottle of glucose is labeled 2. 8% (m/m)**

A bottle of glucose is labeled 2.8% (m/m). How many grams of glucose are in g of solution?

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**1. To make a 1. 00M aqueous solution of NaCl, 58**

1. To make a 1.00M aqueous solution of NaCl, 58.4 g of NaCl are dissolved in 1.00 liter of water. enough water to make 1.00 liter solution. 1.00 kg of water. 100 mL of water.

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**1. To make a 1. 00M aqueous solution of NaCl, 58**

1. To make a 1.00M aqueous solution of NaCl, 58.4 g of NaCl are dissolved in 1.00 liter of water. enough water to make 1.00 liter solution. 1.00 kg of water. 100 mL of water.

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**2. What mass of sodium iodide (NaI) is contained in 250 mL of a 0**

2. What mass of sodium iodide (NaI) is contained in 250 mL of a 0.500M solution? 150 g 75.0 g 18.7 g 0.50 g

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**2. What mass of sodium iodide (NaI) is contained in 250 mL of a 0**

2. What mass of sodium iodide (NaI) is contained in 250 mL of a 0.500M solution? 150 g 75.0 g 18.7 g 0.50 g

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**3. Diluting a solution does NOT change which of the following?**

concentration volume milliliters of solvent moles of solute

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**3. Diluting a solution does NOT change which of the following?**

concentration volume milliliters of solvent moles of solute

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**4. In a 2000 g solution of glucose that is labeled 5**

4. In a 2000 g solution of glucose that is labeled 5.0% (m/m), the mass of water is 2000 g. 100 g. 1995 g. 1900 g.

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**4. In a 2000 g solution of glucose that is labeled 5**

4. In a 2000 g solution of glucose that is labeled 5.0% (m/m), the mass of water is 2000 g. 100 g. 1995 g. 1900 g.

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