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Slide 1 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Molarity The _________________ of a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. A _________ solution is one that contains a ___________ amount of solute. A ______________ solution contains a ____________ amount of solute. 16.2

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Slide 2 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Molarity ____________ (M) is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. To calculate the ______________ of a solution, divide the _______ of _________ by the ___________ of the ____________. 16.2

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Slide 3 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Molarity To make a 0.5-molar (0.5M) solution, first add 0.5 mol of solute to a 1-L volumetric flask half filled with distilled water. 16.2 Swirl the flask carefully to dissolve the solute. Fill the flask with water exactly to the 1-L mark.

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 4 of 46 16.2

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 5 of 46 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 16.2

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 6 of 46 16.3

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 7 of 46 Practice Problems for Sample Problem 16.3

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 8 of 46 Concentrations of Solutions > Making Dilutions Diluting a solution _____________ the number of ___________ of solute per __________ ________________, but the _________ ____________ of moles of solute in solution does __________ change. 16.2

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Slide 9 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Making Dilutions The total number of moles of solute remains unchanged upon dilution, so you can write this equation. M 1 and V 1 are the molarity and volume of the initial solution, and M 2 and V 2 are the molarity and volume of the diluted solution. 16.2

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Slide 10 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Making Dilutions To prepare 100 ml of 0.40M MgSO 4 from a stock solution of 2.0M MgSO 4, a student first measures 20 mL of the stock solution with a 20-mL pipet. 16.2 She then transfers the 20 mL to a 100-mL volumetric flask. Finally she carefully adds water to the mark to make 100 mL of solution.

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 11 of 46 16.4

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 12 of 46 Practice Problems Problem Solving 16.12 Solve Problem 12 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. for Sample Problem 16.4 `

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Slide 13 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Percent Solutions The ________________ of a solution in percent can be expressed in two ways: as the _________ of the volume of the _______ to the volume of the __________ or as the _______ of the mass of the ____________ to the mass of the ____________. 16.2

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Slide 14 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Percent Solutions Concentration in Percent (Volume/Volume) 16.2

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Slide 15 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Percent Solutions Isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) is sold as a 91% solution. This solution consist of 91 mL of isopropyl alcohol mixed with enough water to make 100 mL of solution. 16.2

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall SAMPLE PROBLEM Slide 16 of 46 16.5

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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 17 of 46 Practice Problems Practice Problems For Sample Problem 16.5 Problem-Solving 16.15 Solve Problem 15 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial. for Sample Problem 16.5

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Slide 18 of 46 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Concentrations of Solutions > Percent Solutions Concentration in Percent (Mass/Mass) 16.2

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