Lecture(2) Instructor : Dr. Abed Al-Majed Nassar 2009-2010.
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Lecture(2) Instructor : Dr. Abed Al-Majed Nassar 2009-2010
Planning Sequences Generic Programming and Budgeting
Expected results from Planning Sequences 1 How alternative projects are identified and selected for further examination. 2 How projects prepared at different times by different investigators are compared. 3 How a major project proceeds from preliminary study through construction and operation. 4 What should be the scope of various types of studies and reports. 5 What are the appropriate methodologies to employ to produce the details of the studies and reports.
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure The responsibility for public infrastructure planning, development, implementation, and operations and management, generally rests with an agency that has been granted statutory authority for a particular type of facility or system of facilities. Early planning may be done in a very broad context by state or regional planning organizations, with input from operating agencies. The need for, and the performance of an infrastructure facility may have wide-ranging impacts and involve many persons and organizations. Example
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure The objectives of a project must be viewed from several different standpoints, depending on the nature and extent of the project. Several different contexts may be considered with geographic or political boundaries: global, national, state, and local.
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure Global Issue The global context of a major project, plan, or program of projects may be considered in terms of sustainability or globalization of the economy. National Issue National objectives and concerns are usually expressed in federal legislation, which affects the actions of agencies at all levels of government.
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure State Issue State objectives are generally expressed in legislation paralleling the federal structure, but their financial and regulatory policies may be tailored to the unique requirements within each state. State agencies are often designated as responsible for specific infrastructure facilities. Department of Transportation is responsible for a portion of the highways in the state that are designated by law as state highways. Examples
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure Regional and local Issue Regional and local objectives, like state objectives, may target additional concerns. For the transportation sector.
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure Performance-based planning and the use of outcome-driven performance measures have become increasingly important for public infrastructure projects. Planners must recognize and work within the nested set of stakeholders.
Solid waste Roads Water supply Other Other department Education Other department Public works director Mayor/city manager Region (organization, agencies) State Federal Global Economy
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure There are more than one institution interesting in one infrastructure facility. In Gaza strip there are many institution had an interest in water (Municipality, CMWU, PWA) Example
Basic contexts for planning public works and infrastructure In most cases, decisions to provide public physical infrastructure will be made within the political decision- making process. Political decisions are made through the different funding and regulatory contexts, and through the decision processes of governing entities such as mayors, city councils, county executives, governors, state legislators, and politically appointed agency heads and boards. For any project, the planner must understand the political decision-making process that will govern the implementation of the project.
Disenchantment Uncertainties Confusion Choosing Strategically Today’s Realities Uncertainties Vacillation Inconsistency Pressures Making Progress Joint planning.. Exploring....Investigation Deciding.. Negotiating....Intervening..Turbulence..Competition..Urgency..Complexity..Conflict..Overload Arrangement for Making Policies Arrangement for Making Planes Arrangement for Making Decisions Project plans.. Physical plans.. Financial plans.. Corporate plans.. Operational decisions.. Managerial decisions.. Resources decisions.. Enterpreneural decisions..
SOME IMPORTANT PERSPECTIVES FOR PUBLIC WORKS AND INFRASTRUCTURE 1 Objectives and Values Change over Time. 2 Infrastructure Planning Involves the Concepts of Systems and a Holistic Approach to Installation, Operation, and Management. 3 The Different Infrastructure Systems Need to Be Integrated. 4 Infrastructure Planning Involves Not Only the Provision of the Physical Plant, but Also Its Operation and Management.
5 The Planning of Infrastructure Is Vital to the Economic Future of a Country. 6 The Infrastructure Is Expensive, so the Planning Process Must Be Thorough. 7 Many Different Levels of Government Are Involved. 8 There Is a Need for a Strong National Role in Infrastructure Planning. 9 Infrastructure Planning Is an Interdisciplinary Process. 10 Public Works Planning Methods Are Based on Scientific, Legal, Ethical, Judgmental, and Other Concepts.
11 Many Types of Organizations Employ Infrastructure Planners. 12 A Successful Project Frequently Requires the Support of Elected and Agency Officials. 13 Public Participation in Planning Is Vital. 14 Projects May Have Multiple Purposes and Multiple Objectives. 15 Financial Considerations Are Usually an Important Component of Infrastructure Planning. 16 Many Factors Are Involved in a Successful Project. 17 Planning Should Involve a Systematic and Logical Process.
18 Infrastructure Planning May Involve the Formulation of Alternative Plans to Meet Different Objectives, and a Methodology of Trade-offs to Select an Acceptable Plan. Environmentally Feasible Plans Economically Feasible Plans Financially Feasible Plans Legally Feasible Plans Technically Feasible Plans Institutionally Feasible Plans Politically Feasible Plans Socially Feasible Plans The set of feasible alternatives
19 Planning Objectives and Constraints Should Be Identified and Considered Together. Study authority Problems & opportunities Criteria -Federal interest. -Corps mission -Budget priority - Others Criteria -Federal interest. -Corps mission -Budget priority - Others Continuum of values, idea, concerns, facts, data, etc. “IS it so?” “ Does anyone care?” Public Technical experts Planning objectives Planning constraints
Key Question in the Decision-making Stages of Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Planning What will it cost to take actions needed to achieve desirable performance, that is, to meet specific objectives, satisfy stated goals, or conform to specific regulations? Develop vision, set goals and objectivesDevelop, adopt performance measures Identify alternatives appropriate actions and select a preferred course (e.g., use benefit-cost analysis) Adopt plan, allocate resources, and implement plan
Key Question in the Decision-making Stages of Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Implementation How can action best be carried out to achieve desired performance? Set productivity ObjectivesDevelop, adopt, affirm performance measuresIdentify alternative implementation strategies Execute strategy, assess costs and achievements
Key Question in the Decision-making Stages of Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Evaluation Given that resources were used to take certain actions, are the consequences(outcomes) of these actions consistent with stated and subsequent goals, that is, performance ”adequate” “good” or “otherwise”? Identify, review outcomes of previous actions, plans, policies, regulations. Develop, adopt, affirm performance measures. Measure performance and compare results to goal, objectives, vision t o determine if change in the infrastructure system is warranted Adopt plan, allocate resources, and implement plan