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Ancient Indian science

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1 Ancient Indian science
By: Christopher Jung, Jeremy Williams, & Lisa Inthapandith

2 History of Science in India
Important Time periods 1 Mehrgarh culture—Indus Valley Civilization (7000 BCE—1500 CE) 2 Vedic period (1500 BCE—400 BCE) 3 Post Maha Janapadas period (400 BCE—200 CE) 4 Early Common Era—High Middle Ages (200 CE—1200 CE) 5 Late Middle Ages—Early Modern Era (1200 CE—1757 CE) 6 Colonial British Era (1757 CE—1947 CE) The History of Science in India starts with these studies: Architecture Astronomy Cartography Logic Mathematics Indian scholars made a significant contribution to the various fields of science from the Indus valley civilization to the Republic of India.

3 Mehrgarh culture—Indus Valley Civilization (7000 BCE—1500 CE)
Early ancient forms of dentistry Curing tooth related disorders with drills. Modern reconstruction of this form of dentistry shows that these methods were effective and reliable. Irrigation was Developed in the Indus Valley Civilization around 4500 BCE Eventually leading to more advanced drainage and sewage. Ancient form of a drill These pictures portray the Irrigation process

4 Vedic period (1500 BCE—400 BCE)
The World's First University was established in Takshila in 700BC. Thousands of students from all over the world studied over 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BCE was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ruins from the University of Nalanda

5 Vedic period (1500 BCE—400 BCE)
The earliest Indian Astronomical text date back to 1200 BC. Called the Vendanga Jyotisa. These astronomical discoveries generally applied to social and religious events. The Vendanga Jyotisa details in: Astronomical Calculations Calendrical Studies Establishes rules for empirical observation Astrology Vendanga Jyotisa Ancient Calendar

6 Post Maha Janapadas period (400 BCE—200 CE)
Construction of Dams and Bridges Early development of bridges were visible in the 4th century. Rock cut step wells were similar to dams that date from CE. Inventions and Discoveries The first Iron Pillar was made in India The development of glass ornaments were mastered by Indian Artisans Indians were the first people to use diamonds as gemstones Diamonds were later exported all around the world from India

7 Early Common Era—High Middle Ages (200 CE—1200 CE)
Single Roller Cotton Gin was invented in India known as a Charkhi and in technical terms “wooden-worm-worked roller” In some parts of India this mechanical device was water powered Medical Studies the earliest record of inoculation and smallpox was recorded in 8th century India

8 Early Common Era—High Middle Ages (200 CE—1200 CE)
Madhav Indian physician that wrote the Nidāna 79-chapter book listing diseases along with their causes, symptoms, and complications. He included a special chapter on smallpox (masūrikā) and described the method of inoculation to protect against smallpox

9 The Number system & Early Common Era (200ce–1200 ce) The Arabic number system was invented by the people of India and completed by the 9th century. Though other cultures had a hand in developing the number system. Data and information leading up to the system was compiled up in India. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta an Indian Mathematician in the late 5th century. Aryabhatta also invented the trigonometric function of Sine and Versine. Arabic Number System Aryabhatta

10 Late Middle Ages—Early Modern Era (1200 CE—1757 CE)
Madhava of Sangamagrama The infinite series for π was first stated by him Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics The Yuktibhasa, is considered the first Calculus textbook coming from this school of Kerala Firearms or top-o-tufak These weapons were developing since 1366 CE but became known during the later Middle Ages. Ever since these types of weapons became a part of war, Gunpowder Warfare was dominate after this era. Hunting with these guns

11 Colonial British Era (1757 CE—1947 CE)
Early Volumes of Encyclopedia Britannica Created by the Native people of India Postal System The Postal system in India became very efficient Hyder Ali Created rockets, using metal cylinders and combustion powder. These rockets weren’t accurate for single fire attacks during warfare but were very effective for mass attack. Encyclopedia Britannica Hyder Ali Early forms of Rockets

12 Major Influences on Science
India has contributed to many different subjects of science but the strongest influence that came from this culture, was their mathematics. This culture has shaped and formed what math is today by finalizing the Number System and creating new types of math like Trigonometry and Calculus. 5 x 1=5 2+3=5 10 - 5=5 50/10=5

13 Bibliography Allan, J. & Stern, S. M. (2008). coin. Encyclopedia Britannica. Ifrah, Georges (2000). A Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to Computers. New York: Wiley Khan, Iqtidar Alam (1996), Coming of Gunpowder to the Islamic World and North India: Spotlight on the Role of the Mongols, Journal of Asian History Partington, James Riddick; Hall, Bert S. (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Rodda & Ubertini (2004). The Basis of Civilization--water Science?. International Association of Hydrological Science Associated Press Dig uncovers ancient roots of dentistry. MSNBC. April 5, 2006 National Museum Pre-Historic Archeology. National Museum of India. Google Google Images. Ancient Indian history. Philip Wilkinson Ancient India. John Olley, Ancient Indian Science A Civilization a Lot More Advanced Then We Imagined. Associated Content. Nov 1, 2006 South Asian History. History of India. Paul Halsall India. The Internet Indian Source Book. Fordham. March 13, 2007 University of California Berkeley South Asian history: Ancient India Sircar, D.C.C. (January 1990). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Srinivasan, S. Wootz crucible steel: a newly discovered production site in South India. Institute of Archaeology, University College London Kriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006). Indian Mathematics. Rowman Altamira Wikipedia Science and technology in Ancient India.

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