2 Geography and Early India The Big IdeaIndian civilization first developed on the Indus River.Main IdeasThe geography of India includes high mountains, great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain.Harappan civilization developed along the Indus River.The Aryan invasion of India changed the region’s civilization.
3 Indian Geography Mountains North: The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world.West: The Hindu Kush provide protection from enemies.Plains and PlateausRivers and melting snow kept the plains fertile.Both sides of the river thrived.WaterMonsoonsHeavy rainfallCivilizations arose around seasonal rainfall.
5 Harappan Civilization PeoplePopulation grew in the Indus River Valley.Growth came as irrigation and farming techniques improved.Cities were built as surplus food was produced.CitiesHarrapaMohenjo DaroFortresses for defense against enemiesWell-planned public areasAchievementsWells and indoor plumbingPottery, cotton clothing, jewelryIndia’s first writing system
9 Aryan InvasionWhen the Harappan civilization dissipated in 1700 BC, Central Asians called Aryans began taking over territory.Invaders from the WestThe Aryans left behind vast collections of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals. They also had religious writings known as Vedas.ReligionNo central government: small communities ruled by rajasGovernmentSanskrit is the root of many modern South Asian languages.Language
11 Summary Harappan Civilization Aryan Invasion Two major cities: Harappa, Mohenjo DaroAdvanced civilization that thrived between 2300 and 1700 BCCulture, artistry, city planningAryan InvasionSouth Asian warriors pushed through the Hindu Kush mountains and settled in the Indus ValleyOral tradition in religion and mythology resulted in the most important language of ancient India: Sanskrit.