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Unit 201: Health safety and welfare in construction Accidents and emergency reporting, procedures and documentation, and hazards in the workplace

2 Objectives By the end of this session you will be able to:
State legislation used for reporting accidents State major types of emergences that can occur Identify reportable injuries' and diseases as per RIDDOR Identify the authorised personal involved in dealing with accident and emergency situations Know what actions are taken when discovering an accident State the importance of good housekeeping on site and the reasons for risk assessments and method statements Identify types of hazards and the correct storage of chemicals on site Identify different signs and safety notices used on site

3 Accidents What is an accident ?
An accident is an unforeseen, unplanned and uncontrolled event An accident is an unfortunate event resulting especially form carelessness or ignorance Types of emergencies on site As well as accidents other incidents can occur like fire, bomb alerts, chemical spillage and security alerts Reporting accidents All accidents, including near misses, must be reported to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by employers. Also, employees must report all accidents and near misses to their supervisor. This is so that the cause can be analysed and action taken to prevent incidents happening again.

4 Accidents continued Reporting accidents
An accident that causes death, major injury or absence from work for more than 3 days must be reported to the HSE using an Accident Record Form. Minor accidents are usually reported in an Accident Book. A manager or supervisor normally completes accident reports. You might need to give information if you are involved or witnessed the accident. The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 Why report accidents? Reporting accidents allows you to look closely at what causes accidents. This means that you can take action to prevent them in future.

5 Accidents continued The Accident Book
All accidents, even minor ones, have to be entered into the employer’s Accident Book at work. These facts must be recorded The name of the injured person, home address and occupation The signature of the person making the entry, home address, occupation and date When and where the accident happened A brief description of the accident, cause and what the injury is Whether it is reportable to the HSE (this is the employer’s responsibility). Activity Now complete activity sheet 4 and carefully follow the instructions

6 Reporting Accidents

7 Types of accidents in the construction sector
There were 49 fatal injuries to workers in Construction in 2011/12, 23 of these fatalities were to the self-employed. The main cause of construction worker fatalities were:

8 Types of accidents in the construction sector
There were 2,230 reported major injuries to construction employees in 2011/12. The most common causes of major injuries to construction employees were:

9 Types of accidents in the construction sector
Reported non-fatal injuries per year to employees in construction between 2006/07 and 2010/11 (main occupations)

10 What do the accident figures tell us?
Activity Look at the tables on the previous slides Check you understand the figures. Use the percentages to make a chart or diagram. See activity sheet 5 for full details. Discuss the main findings. What causes most accidents? What occupation had the most accidents ?

11 The importance of good housekeeping
You are responsible for health and safety – even if you don’t directly employ the people working on your site Keep your site clean and tidy, with clear space for people to work in Keep people, including the public, away from danger Fence the site off and use warning signs

12 The importance of good housekeeping
Fact Each year around 1000 trips or slips on construction sites involve someone fracturing bones or dislocating joints These incidents can cause permanent disablement and have a huge impact on both work and personal life. Many of are caused simply because there is something in the person’s way, such as building materials or waste Materials storage Safe and efficient materials storage depends on good co-operation and co- ordination between everyone involved including, client, contractors, suppliers and the construction trades. Waste management The legislation governing the proper disposal of waste, ranging from low risk waste through to hazardous waste . These laws are enforced by the Environment Agency and Local Authorities.

13 The importance of good housekeeping
Top tips for waste management on smaller projects:

14 Risk Assessments A risk assessment is careful study of some work that is to be done so as to identify the risks to health and safety of the persons who are going to do it, to decide how those risks can be eliminated or avoided, or what control measures are needed so that the work can be done safely and without risks to health.

15 How to assess the risks in your workplace
Follow the five steps Step 1 - Identify the hazards Step 2 - Decide who might be harmed and how Step 3 - Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions Step 4 - Record your findings and implement them Step 5 - Review your assessment and update if necessary Activity Complete activity sheet 7 place the risks in the correct order

16 Types of hazards in the workplace
Common hazards on construction sites Faults in equipment and tools Stored substances Dangerously stacked materials Materials obstructing safe access, or simply a lack of site safety. Falls Falling objects Electricity Over a third of hazards reported are from trips and falls

17 Types of hazards in the workplace
Activity Watch the video and follow the instructions can you identify the hazards in the workplace?

18 The Storage of Chemical in the workplace
Using and storing hazardous substances on construction sites are a major health and safety risk How do you know a substance is hazardous? COSHH data sheets Most substances carry a warning sign and usage instructions NEVER USE HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES UNLESS YOU HAVE HAD CLEAR GUIDANCE ON USAGE

19 The Storage of Chemical in the workplace continued
Definitions Substance means any natural or artificial material, whether solid, liquid or gaseous or vapour form, and includes micro-organisms. Hazard is the ability of the substance to cause harm, illness or damage to health. Risk is the likelihood that the hazardous potential of the substance will be released.

20 Method statements A method statement is a useful way of recording the hazards involved in specific work task and communicating the risk and precautions required to all those involved in the work. Key points The statement need be no longer than necessary to achieve these objectives effectively. The statement should be clear and illustrated by simple sketches where necessary. Avoid ambiguities or generalisations, which could lead to confusion. Statements are for the benefit of those carrying out the work and their immediate supervisors and should not be overcomplicated. Equipment needed for safe working should be clearly identified and available before work starts Workers should know what to do if the work method needs to be changed. Examples of completed method statements and a blank template

21 Safety signs and the law
Employers are required to provide safety signs to ensure employees are aware of what does or may affect health and safety Each type has a shape and colour They use few words but give the message quickly using symbols and pictures There are four types of signs in general use Each site will have signs at the site entrance

22 The four types of safety signs
Mandatory - Must obey, white symbol on a blue background Warning - Risk of danger, hazard ahead, triangular with a yellow background Prohibition - Stop must not do, Red on a white background Safe conditions - Gives you information, Green with a white symbol

23 Activity
Watch the video on poor safety and discuss what went wrong?

24 Safety Signs To be safe at work make sure you understand and recognise the different safety signs visible around the site Activity Using activity sheet 6 match the signs with the meaning and the type of sign displayed. You can work in groups or individually.

25 Any questions?

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