Bilateral & Regional Trade Agreements: Free Trade Agreements: Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA). COMESA. European Partnership. Agadir. Turkey. EFTA. 3
4 Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) Contains 18 out of 22 Arab countries including:- Egypt, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria Oman, and Yemen.
Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) The agreement was started on 1/1/1998. Full exemption on all goods (agricultural & industrial) has been applied on 1/1/2005. The local value added must be at least 40% on the current applied rules of origin. Egypt as a major establisher of this agreement plays a vital role in solving the implementation problems for this agreement like the lists of exemptions, non tariff barriers, agricultural Calendar and drafting the rules of origin. 5
Great Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) 6 Trade indicators: Values in million $ before entry into force 2005 after entry into force 2008 20092010201120122013 trade balance -199-39728841812985160505 exports 48749579196368900088859312 imports 68689250354556801590458807
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA ) 8
9 COMESA Agreement was signed on 8/12/1994, thus replacing the old PTA Agreement which was signed in 1981 & entered into force in 1982. Egypt became a member in May 1998. COMESA Free Trade Area consists of 15 member states namely; Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA ) Eritrea applies 80% reduction on its imports from COMESA member states. Ethiopia applies 10% reduction of the customs duties imposed on its imports from COMESA members states. 10
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA ) 11 The value added resulting from the process of production accounts for at least 35% of the ex-factory cost of the goods. COMESA applied the detailed rules of origin. COMESA launched the Customs Union during COMESA summit on 8 June 2009.
Egypt trade with COMESA 12 Values in million $ BEFORE ACCESSIONAFTER ACCESSION 19971998200520062007200820092010201120122013 TRADE BALANCE -81-1081222041704931154138281515641658 EGYPT EXPORTS 4445296443535165118652346165424802385 EGYPT IMPORTS 1251541742393651158711963839916727
The Egyptian-European Partnership Agreement The agreement has come into force since 1/1/2004 with customs reduction of 25% for the Egyptian imports. From 1/5/2004 new members have joined European Union to be 25 member countries, And this has been signed to increase agricultural exports quotas. In 1/1/2007 Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union and now EU is 28 members countries. 15
The Egyptian-European Partnership Agreement The industrial products status: - Exemption all The Egyptian industrial products from custom tariffs at the beginning of the implementation 16
17 Egyptian imports from EU industrial products The percentage of the custom tariff reduction on the Egyptian imports form EU during the agreement years Start years of the agreement Year Executive date 1/1/2004 5678910111213141516171819 1 st list (raw material) 25 2 nd list (intermediate product) 1015 3 rd list finished product) 5515 4 th list( cars) 10
18 Agricultural, Processed agricultural and Fish and Fishery products treatment ( Egyptian exports ) According to the new arrangements applicable to the importation into the European Union for these products originating in Egypt which entered into force 1 st of June 2010, all products not included in table 1 that is annexed to protocol 1 are duty free. A preferential treatment for some of the products listed in table 1 are indicated in table 2.
19 Agricultural, Processed agricultural and Fish and Fishery products treatment ( Egyptian imports) According to the new arrangements applicable to the importation into Egypt for these products originating in the European community which entered into force 1st of June 2010, all products not included in table 1 that is annexed to protocol 2 are duty free. A preferential treatment for some of the products listed in table 1 are indicated in table 2.
RULES OF ORIGIN Protocol III outlines the rules of origin under the agreement. Both parties will apply the Pan-Euro- Med rules of origin, which allow goods produced from materials originating in any Euro-Med countries to enter the EU market with preferences. 20
The Egyptian-European Partnership Agreement 21 Values in million $ 2003 Before FTA 2004200520062007200820092010201120122013 exports 21702740357346494710935666918358967878328072 imports 32263598475947906216144351431517094181412005921231 trade vol. 359663388332943910926237902100625452278202789129303 trade balance -1055-858-1186-141-1507-5079-7624-8736-8463-12227-13159
Agadir Agreement (AA) was signed in the city of Rabat, Morocco on 25 February, 2004 between Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. The aim of the Agreement is to establish a Free Trade area among Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan for the purpose of developing economic activity, supporting employment, increasing productivity, and improving living standards within the Member Countries. 24
Agadir Agreement Exemption of all the customs duties and taxes with similar effect on all the products. Agadir Agreement implements the Euro – Med Rules of Origin. 25
Agadir Agreement 26 Values in million $ Before entry into force 2077 entry into force 20082009201020112012 2013 exports2001823312388869495 imports113001834407419 Trade balance871823310554462077 Trade vol.31318233141122126168114
Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement Egypt–Turkey Free Trade Agreement was signed on 27/12/2005. The ratified FTA came into effect on 1/3/2007 in a context governed by the Euro-Med process. 28
Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement The industrial products status: - Exemption all The Egyptian industrial products from custom tariffs at the beginning of the implementation. 29
30 Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement Industrial Products treatment under the agreement (Egyptian imports) List0708091011121314151617181920 175%100%------------ 2-10%25%40%55%70%85%100% 3---5%10%25%40%55%70%85%100% 4----10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%
31 Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement Agricultural, Processed Agricultural, and Fishery Products treatment under the agreement Concessions on agricultural, processed agricultural, and fishery products are outlined in Protocol II. The two parties have agreed to grant each other concessions either as tariff rate quotas (TRQs) or tariff reductions on agricultural, processed agricultural, and fishery products. The two parties exchanged the same concessions on processed agricultural products. Both parties agreed to extend the existing concessions in agriculture and processed agriculture products through the joint committee meetings.
Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement RULES OF ORIGIN Protocol III outlines the rules of origin under the FTA. Both parties will apply the Pan-Euro-Med rules of origin, which allow goods produced from materials originating in any Euro-Med countries to enter the EU market with preferences. 32
Egypt-Turkey Free Trade Agreement 33 Before entry into force Entry into force 2007 200820092010201120122013 Values in million $ exports 3624417886891033152815581741 imports 391458118523441884263533812626 trade vol. 752899197330332917416349394367 trade balance -2917-397-1655-851-1107--1823-885
36 Egypt & EFTA States Free Trade Agreement Egypt signed a free trade agreement with EFTA countries on 27/1/2007 in Davos and entered into force in August 2007. EFTA member State are: Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and liechtenstein
Egypt & EFTA States Free Trade Agreement The industrial products status: - Egyptian exports to EFTA: shall enjoy an immediate removal of all customs duties and other charges having equivalent effect upon the entry into force of the Agreement. 37
38 EGYPT AND EFTA STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Egyptian imports of industrial products Agreement Implementation Years 2019181716151413121110090807 ------------100%75% List 1 100%85%7055%40%25%10%- List 2 100%85%70%55%40%25%10%5%--- List 3 100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%---- List 4
39 EGYPT AND EFTA STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Treatment of Agriculture goods Treatment of Agriculture goods It was agreed that the agriculture file would be dealt with on a bilateral basis. A List of agriculture exports to each EFTA member country was prepared, as well as lists of imports of agriculture products from member countries, Treatment of processed Agriculture goods Treatment of processed Agriculture goods Both parties agreed on the list of Egyptian exports that is to be accorded preferential treatment by EFTA countries, equivalent to the preferential treatment accorded to EU countries.
40 EGYPT AND EFTA STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Rules of origin : Protocol (B) outlines the rules of origin under the FTA, and it defines the rules by which the products could gain the origin of the two countries in order to enjoy preferences. Both parties will apply the Pan-Euro-Med rules of origin, which allow goods produced from materials originating in any Euro-Med countries to enter the EU market with preferences.
EGYPT AND EFTA STATES FREE TRADE AGREEMENT After entry into force Before entry into force 2013201220112010200920082007200620052004 Values in million $ -1285-511-620-224194-746-32-175-139-115 Trade balance 119354284425785381142795132exports 1404865904684592784145104190147imports
Why Egypt?! Egypt is the gate of: COMESA with its 19 member states COMESA which covers more than 389 million citizen COMESA with an export bill of $32 billion COMESA with an import bill of $82 billion COMESA which covers a geographical area of 12 million (sq km). 43
Why Egypt?! Egypt is the gate of: GAFTA with its 18 member states GAFTA which covers more than 362 million person GAFTA with an export bill of $1196 billion GAFTA with an import bill of $753 billion GAFTA which covers a geographical area of 14.2 million (sq km). 44
Why Egypt?! Egypt will be a gate of: MERCOSUR (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) MERCOSUR which covers more than 295 million person MERCOSUR with an export bill of $446 billion MERCOSUR with an import bill of $363 billion MERCOSUR which covers a geographical area of 15 million (sq km). 45
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