Presentation on theme: " Nuclear Deterrence during the Cold War. As a result of the Manhattan project American scientist learned to create nuclear fission explosion splitting."— Presentation transcript:
As a result of the Manhattan project American scientist learned to create nuclear fission explosion splitting atoms of uranium and plutonium. The first atomic bombs were equivalent of about 14 Kilotons of dynamite.
In 1949 the USSR tested an atomic bomb and began stock piling theses weapons. As a result to the Korean war both sides built long range strategic bombers.
By 1953 both superpowers developed hydrogen bombs that combined nuclear fission and fusion reactions. Most Hydrogen warheads were between 2 and 100 megatons.
The first detonation of an H-bomb over a south pacific Island resulted in vaporization of the three mile long island.
The United states began to build a fleet of long range strategic bombers such as B- 52’s, B-1’s an B-2 stealth bombers..
By the 1950’s the U.S. and Russia were building short range, medium range, and Intermediate range ballistic missiles to carry warheads.
Nuclear missiles were also put on nuclear powered submarines. SLBM’s could be hidden under water In the 1960’s, ICBM rockets were developed fire between the continents in less than 30 minutes.
The Russians and Americans next mirv’ed their ICBM’s in increase further discourage a nuclear preemptive attack. One mirve’d ICBM rocket could destroy up to 12 cities.
The strategy to keep war from breaking out was based on mutual assured destruction. If anyone launched a preemptive attack they could be certain of annihilation.
By the 1960’s the U.S. and Soviet Union had stockpiled more than 32,000 tactile and strategic warheads in order to deter a nuclear attack. By the 1980’s there was over 50,0000.
In 1959 Fidel Castro took control of the Island of Cuban. In response to the failed CIA backed coop. He asked for and received Soviet IRBM’s. A U2 spy plane took pictures of the launchers.
These missiles could destroy most U.S. cities in less than 15 minutes. Kennedy chose not to attack the launchers and risk a nuclear war with Russia. Instead he set up a naval quarantine and ordered Khrushchev to remove the missiles.
As the Russian cargo ships and subs armed with nuclear torpedoes approached the blockade the world braced for a nuclear war. At last minute the Russians agreed to remove the missiles.
During the 13 day crises both countries were ready to launch their entire nuclear arsenals. A Russian sub was intercepted but the captain chose not to fire his nuclear torpedoes.
The U.S. and Russia agreed to install the hotline link and sign a test ban treaty in an attempt cool off the arms race tension.
SALT I IN 1972 during the Nixon years the U.S. ratified the SALT I treaty with the Soviets which put a five year freeze in building new ICBM rockets. Both sides agreed not to build any ABM missile systems which might cause either country to attempt a preemptive first strike..
During the next five years both sides stockpiled mirv’ed missiles that could get around this treaty. A mirv’ed ICBM could destroy up to 12 cities.
In 1980 both the Salt II treaty was ready to be ratified by the U.S. Senate to extend the treaty for five more years. The U.S. never approved the treaty because the Russians attacked Afghanistan.
Ronald Reagan knew the Soviet economy was close to collapse. To speed things up he proposed a $3.8 trillion arms build up. This included SDI research and new IRBM’s in NATO countries.
As a result of the collapse of the Communist economy Gorbachev proposes massive conventional and nuclear arms cuts to Reagan and Bush. He also begins to adapt capitalist and democratic reforms.
Thousands of IRBM were destroyed under a 1988 treaty with the USSR. It was verified by both parties. Under the CFE treaty NATO and WARSAW pact conventional weapons were drastically cut back.
When communist hard liners attempt to stop Gorbachev’s new policies in a failed coop. Gorbachev outlaws the Communist party and hold free elections. The START I and II treaties are then signed Today the Superpower each have about 3,500 ICBM missiles. Mirv’ed missiles are outlawed. The number of battlefield nuclear weapons has been cut in half.
Dismantled warhead can be reassembled if our relationship with Russia goes sour. The weapons grade fuel must be guarded and kept out of the hands of terrorist or Rouge nations. There is fear that N. Korea and Iran may be a threat to the U.S. in the future. About 12 nations today now have nuclear weapons. India and Pakistan have been the latest nations to join the nuclear club.