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The Cold War: An Overview Make sure you are ready to talk about your Tournament Term!

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War: An Overview Make sure you are ready to talk about your Tournament Term!"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War: An Overview Make sure you are ready to talk about your Tournament Term!

2 Joseph Stalin led the Soviet Union from 1927 to 1953 When the Cold War began, Stalin spread communism into the satellites in Eastern Europe Stalin escalated the Cold War by creating the Berlin Blockade in 1948 Under Stalin, the USSR tested the atomic bomb in 1949 & hydrogen bomb in 1953

3 Stalin signed a “treaty of friendship” with Mao Zedong after the Chinese Revolution Stalin sent weapons to communists in North Korea during the Korean War

4 Joseph Stalin’s death in 1953 changed the Soviet Union & how it approached the Cold War against the United States

5 New USSR leader Nikita Khrushchev began a series of reforms known as de-Stalinization, which included releasing political prisoners & relaxing censorship Khrushchev seemed willing to work with the USA to ease Cold War tensions…

6 …But, tensions between the USA & USSR escalated throughout the 1950s & 1960s

7 In 1952, the USA tested the first hydrogen bomb which is 1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb The Soviet Union responded by detonating its own hydrogen bomb in 1953

8 By 1959, both the USA & USSR developed rockets called intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) that could deliver nuclear warheads to distant targets U.S. Titan ICMB from the 1960s Soviet ICMBs from 1960-1975 Soviet Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) U.S. Polaris Submarine

9 In the 1950s, U.S. President Eisenhower escalated the Cold War by using brinkmanship: threatening to use nuclear weapons & willingness to go to the brink of war If the USSR attacked a NATO member, the U.S. would use massive retaliation: attack every major Soviet city & military target As a result, the USA & USSR began stockpiling nuclear weapons & building up their militaries

10 With the USA & USSR in possession of large nuclear stockpiles, each side could destroy each other: this was known as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Throughout the Cold War, the USA & USSR looked for ways to gain first strike capability

11 In 1957, the USSR used its first ICBM to launch Sputnik, the first satellite into space Sputnik shocked Americans who feared the U.S. had fallen behind the USSR in science & technology As a result of Sputnik, the Cold War escalated into a space race to show American & Soviet dominance

12 In 1958, the USA created National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) to catch up to the USSR… …U.S. schools promoted math, science, & technology The USSR repeatedly beat the USA in space by launching the first man into orbit & orbiting the moon NASA’s original seven NASA Mercury astronauts

13 In 1962, President John Kennedy committed the USA to beating the Soviet Union in the race to the moon In 1969, Apollo 11 landed U.S. astronauts on the moon

14 During the Cold War, the USA & USSR created intelligence agencies, the CIA and KGB, in order to spy and carry out covert operations The USA & USSR used spies to gather intelligence Convicted spies Julius & Ethel Rosenberg U.S. & Soviet spy planes gathered information also

15 The Cold War escalated as the threat of communism spread into the Middle East, Africa, & Latin America The CIA overthrew the governments of Iran & Guatemala and intervened in Egypt, Bolivia, Chile, & Cuba to stop communism

16 In 1961, John F Kennedy became U.S. president Kennedy & Khrushchev faced two important crises that heightened Cold War tensions: Building of the Berlin Wall & the Cuban Missile Crisis

17 The Berlin Crisis, 1961 Khrushchev was upset with the increasing number of communist East Germans who moved to democratic West Berlin In 1961, Khrushchev threatened to cut off access to West Berlin like Stalin’s blockade in 1948 President Kennedy promised to protect West Berlin

18 Rather than blockade the city, Communist leaders built the Berlin Wall to keep East Germans out of West Berlin

19 Walls and other barriers 10–15 feet high surrounded West Berlin. The length of the barriers around the city totaled about 110 miles The “death strip” stretched like a barren moat around West Berlin, with patrols, floodlights, electric fences, and vehicle traps between the inner and outer walls The Berlin Wall became the iconic image of the Cold War

20 When Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba in 1959, the USA feared the spread of communism so close to America

21 The U.S. successfully blockaded Cuba & Khrushchev removed the ICBMs in exchange for the removal of American ICBMs in Europe The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the USA & USSR came to nuclear war After a failed attempt to overthrow Castro in The Bay of Pigs incident, Khrushchev secretly sent nuclear missiles to Cuba

22 From 1965 to 1973, the USA became involved in the Vietnam War When communist leader Ho Chi Minh gained independence for Vietnam, the USA feared communism in SE Asia

23 Vietnam was divided into a communist North & a democratic South In South Vietnam, communists known as the Vietcong worked to unify North & South Vietnam To contain communism, the USA sent troops to Vietnam starting in 1965

24 The American military used bombing raids, pesticides, & search-and-destroy missions to fight the communists Despite these efforts, the U.S. was unable to defeat the communist enemy The Vietnam War was expensive, hurt the U.S. economy, & became unpopular with anti-war protestors in the USA. In 1973, the USA withdrew from Vietnam & 2 years later communists unified Vietnam

25 America’s failure in Vietnam led to a change in Cold War policies The USA abandoned its containment policy & began looking for ways to improve relations with Cold War enemies

26 In the 1970s, Richard Nixon’s policy of détente (easing Cold War tensions) replaced brinkmanship In 1972, Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit & recognize communist China Nixon’s visit to China put pressure on the Soviet Union to negotiate with the USA

27 In 1972, Nixon met with Soviet leader Brezhnev to discuss arms reduction The USA & USSR signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) which limited the number of ICBMs each nation could have By the 1970s, the USA & USSR seemed willing to peacefully coexist

28 But, détente ended in 1979 when the USSR invaded Afghanistan to put down an anti-communist uprising

29 In the 1980s, new U.S. President Ronald Reagan helped win with Cold War against the Soviet Union President Reagan’s strong anti-communist policies & the collapse of communist economies brought the Cold War to an end by 1991

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