 # Solutions Read chapter 12. What determines solubility? Temperature Temperature Pressure (when a gas is involved) Pressure (when a gas is involved) Nature.

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What determines solubility? Temperature Temperature Pressure (when a gas is involved) Pressure (when a gas is involved) Nature of the particles – Nature of the particles – –“Like dissolves like”

Aqueous Solutions Water is a “polar” molecule. Water is a “polar” molecule. –The O in the molecule has a partial negative charge –The H’s have a partial positive charge.    O H H

Aqueous Solutions Water solvates (surrounds and stabilizes) the ions. Water solvates (surrounds and stabilizes) the ions. –H’s (  + ) interact with the negatively charged anions –O (  - ) interacts with the positively charged cations

Aqueous Solutions - + Solvation of anionSolvation of cation

http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemis try/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.s wf http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemis try/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.s wf http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemis try/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.s wf http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemis try/essentialchemistry/flash/molvie1.s wf

Henry’s Law The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. (at constant temp.) The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. (at constant temp.) S 1 S 2 P 1 = P 2

Solubility is defined as grams per liter. (g/L)

Example- If 0.85 g of gas at 4.0 atm of pressure dissolves in 1.0L of water at 25 ° C, how much will dissolve in 1.0L of water at 1.2 atm of pressure and the same temperature? If 0.85 g of gas at 4.0 atm of pressure dissolves in 1.0L of water at 25 ° C, how much will dissolve in 1.0L of water at 1.2 atm of pressure and the same temperature?

Units of Concentration: 1. Percent by Mass % = mass solute x 100 mass solution mass solution

Example: What is the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in a solution containing 20g NaHCO 3 in 600g H 2 O? What is the percent by mass of NaHCO 3 in a solution containing 20g NaHCO 3 in 600g H 2 O?

You have 1500. g of a bleach solution. The percent by mass of the solute sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is 3.62%. How many grams of NaOCl are in the solution? You have 1500. g of a bleach solution. The percent by mass of the solute sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is 3.62%. How many grams of NaOCl are in the solution? How many grams of solvent were present? How many grams of solvent were present?

1a. Percent by volume % = volume solute X 100 volume solution volume solution

Example- What is the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution that contains 35mL of ethanol dissolved in 115 mL of water? What is the percent by volume of ethanol in a solution that contains 35mL of ethanol dissolved in 115 mL of water?

2. Molarity M = mols solute liters solution liters solution

Example - What is the molarity of an aqueous solution containing 40.0g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in 1.5 L of solution? What is the molarity of an aqueous solution containing 40.0g of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) in 1.5 L of solution? How many grams of NaOH are in 250mL of a 3.0M NaOH solution? How many grams of NaOH are in 250mL of a 3.0M NaOH solution?

3.Dilution Formula M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 Example – What volume of a 3.00M KI stock solution would you use to make 0.300L of a 1.25M KI solution?

4. molality m = mols solute kilograms solvent kilograms solvent

Example - What is the molality of a solution containing 30.0g of naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ) dissolved in 500.0g of toluene? What is the molality of a solution containing 30.0g of naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ) dissolved in 500.0g of toluene?

How many grams of water would be necessary to make of 1.35 m salt solution from 25.8 g of NaCl? How many grams of water would be necessary to make of 1.35 m salt solution from 25.8 g of NaCl?

5. Mole Fraction X A = mols A total mols total mols

Examples- What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an aqueous solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass? What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an aqueous solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass? An aqueous solution of NaCl has a mole fraction of 0.21. What is the mass of NaCl dissolved in 100.0mL of water? An aqueous solution of NaCl has a mole fraction of 0.21. What is the mass of NaCl dissolved in 100.0mL of water?

Colligative Properties Properties of solutions that are affected by the number of particles, but not by the identity of the particles. Properties of solutions that are affected by the number of particles, but not by the identity of the particles. (it doesn’t matter what is dissolved, only how much!) (it doesn’t matter what is dissolved, only how much!)

1. Vapor Pressure Lowering Vapor pressure is caused Vapor pressure is caused by molecules that have evaporated from the surface of a liquid

For a solution, the amount of vapor pressure (vapor above the solution) will be less.

Why? When solute is added, particles of solute replace some of the solvent at the surface. This reduces access for evaporation, thus reducing vapor pressure. When solute is added, particles of solute replace some of the solvent at the surface. This reduces access for evaporation, thus reducing vapor pressure.

Also, In a solution the solvent- solute attraction is usually stronger than the original solvent-solvent attraction, further reducing evaporation. In a solution the solvent- solute attraction is usually stronger than the original solvent-solvent attraction, further reducing evaporation.

Raoult’s law P A = X A P A ° P A = new vapor pressure of the solution the solution X A = mol fraction of the solvent solvent P A ° = original vapor pressure of the solvent the solvent

example Calculate the vapor pressure of a solution prepared by dissolving 25.0 grams of NaCl in 100 grams of water. The original vapor pressure of the water is 19.8 torr. Calculate the vapor pressure of a solution prepared by dissolving 25.0 grams of NaCl in 100 grams of water. The original vapor pressure of the water is 19.8 torr.

2. Boiling point elevation The difference between the normal boiling point of a pure solvent and the boiling point of a solution. The difference between the normal boiling point of a pure solvent and the boiling point of a solution. ∆T b = K b m K b H 2 O = 0.51 °C·Kg/mol

example What is the boiling point of a solution of 103.2 g of C 6 H 12 O 6 in 0.75 Kg of H 2 O? What is the boiling point of a solution of 103.2 g of C 6 H 12 O 6 in 0.75 Kg of H 2 O? What is the molality of a water solution that boils at 106.5°C? What is the molality of a water solution that boils at 106.5°C?

3. Freezing point depression The difference between the normal freezing point of a pure solvent and the freezing point of a solution. The difference between the normal freezing point of a pure solvent and the freezing point of a solution. ∆T f = K f m K f H 2 O = -1.86 °C·Kg/mol

example What is the freezing point of water in a solution of 117.1g of sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) and 200 g of water? What is the freezing point of water in a solution of 117.1g of sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) and 200 g of water?

4. Osmotic Pressure Osmosis – the diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration. Why is this a colligative property?

Hypertonic Hypotonic solution solution Hypertonic Hypotonic solution solution

Π = MRT The average osmotic pressure of blood is 7.7 atm at 25°C. What concentration of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, will be isotonic with blood? The average osmotic pressure of blood is 7.7 atm at 25°C. What concentration of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, will be isotonic with blood?

Types of Mixtures 1. Homogeneous mixture Solution - parts too small to see. (all looks the same) Solvated particles are less than 1 nm. Solution - parts too small to see. (all looks the same) Solvated particles are less than 1 nm.

2. Heterogeneous mixtures Suspension – a mixture containing particles large enough to settle out if left undisturbed. Suspension – a mixture containing particles large enough to settle out if left undisturbed. Particles > 1000 nm Particles > 1000 nm

Examples - –Muddy water –Medicines (shake well) –Paint

Colloid – mixture with intermediate sized particles. the particles are too small to filter out or to settle out on their own. the particles are too small to filter out or to settle out on their own. (between 1 nm and 1000 nm) (between 1 nm and 1000 nm)

Examples - FogBloodButterFoamSmoke

The Tyndall Effect Colloids can be cloudy (opaque) or as clear as solutions. Colloids can be cloudy (opaque) or as clear as solutions. Particles in a colloid are always big enough to scatter light – the Tyndall effect Particles in a colloid are always big enough to scatter light – the Tyndall effect The Tyndall effect is used to distinguish between solution and colloids. The Tyndall effect is used to distinguish between solution and colloids.

Brownian motion This erratic movement of colloid particles resulting from collisions of particles of the dispersion medium with the dispersed particles. These collisions prevent the colloid particles from settling out of the mixture.

Enthalpies of Solution Three steps in the dissolving process Three steps in the dissolving process 1.Breaking the solute-solute attraction *(energy required) 2.Breaking the solvent-solvent attraction *(energy required) 3.Formation of the solute-solvent attraction *(energy released)

Enthalpy of Solution If the sum of steps 1 & 2 is greater than step 3, the process is endothermic (feels cold) If the sum of steps 1 & 2 is greater than step 3, the process is endothermic (feels cold) If the sum of steps 1 & 2 is less than step 3, the process is exothermic (feels hot) If the sum of steps 1 & 2 is less than step 3, the process is exothermic (feels hot)

Concepts to know… Electrolyte vs. nonelectrolyte Electrolyte vs. nonelectrolyte Factors affecting rate of dissolution Factors affecting rate of dissolution Unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated Unsaturated, saturated, supersaturated Miscible vs. immiscible Miscible vs. immiscible

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