# 1 Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

## Presentation on theme: "1 Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances The solute is(are) the substance(s) present in the smaller amount(s) The solvent is the substance present in the larger amount

3 A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given solvent at a specific temperature. An unsaturated solution contains less solute than the solvent has the capacity to dissolve at a specific temperature. A supersaturated solution contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution at a specific temperature. Sodium acetate crystals rapidly form when a seed crystal is added to a supersaturated solution of sodium acetate.

4 Three types of interactions in the solution process: solvent-solvent interaction solute-solute interaction solvent-solute interaction Molecular view of the formation of solution  H soln =  H 1 +  H 2 +  H 3

5 “like dissolves like” Two substances with similar intermolecular forces are likely to be soluble in each other. non-polar molecules are soluble in non-polar solvents CCl 4 in C 6 H 6 polar molecules are soluble in polar solvents C 2 H 5 OH in H 2 O ionic compounds are more soluble in polar solvents NaCl in H 2 O or NH 3 (l)

6 Concentration Units The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution. Percent by Mass % by mass = x 100% mass of solute mass of solute + mass of solvent = x 100% mass of solute mass of solution Mole Fraction (X) X A = moles of A sum of moles of all components

7 Concentration Units Continued M = moles of solute liters of solution Molarity (M) Molality (m) m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg)

8 What is the molality of a 5.86 M ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) solution whose density is 0.927 g/mL? m =m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) M = moles of solute liters of solution Assume 1 L of solution: 5.86 moles ethanol = 270 g ethanol 927 g of solution (1000 mL x 0.927 g/mL) mass of solvent = mass of solution – mass of solute = 927 g – 270 g = 657 g = 0.657 kg m =m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) = 5.86 moles C 2 H 5 OH 0.657 kg solvent = 8.92 m

9 Temperature and Solubility Solid solubility and temperature solubility increases with increasing temperature solubility decreases with increasing temperature

10 Fractional crystallization is the separation of a mixture of substances into pure components on the basis of their differing solubilities. Suppose you have 90 g KNO 3 contaminated with 10 g NaCl. Fractional crystallization: 1.Dissolve sample in 100 mL of water at 60 0 C 2.Cool solution to 0 0 C 3.All NaCl will stay in solution (s = 34.2g/100g) 4.78 g of PURE KNO 3 will precipitate (s = 12 g/100g). 90 g – 12 g = 78 g

11 Boiling-Point Elevation  T b = T b – T b 0 T b > T b 0  T b > 0 T b is the boiling point of the pure solvent 0 T b is the boiling point of the solution  T b = K b m m is the molality of the solution K b is the molal boiling-point elevation constant ( 0 C/m) for a given solvent

12 Freezing-Point Depression  T f = T f – T f 0 T f > T f 0  T f > 0 T f is the freezing point of the pure solvent 0 T f is the freezing point of the solution  T f = K f m m is the molality of the solution K f is the molal freezing-point depression constant ( 0 C/m) for a given solvent

13

14 What is the freezing point of a solution containing 478 g of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) in 3202 g of water? The molar mass of ethylene glycol is 62.01 g.  T f = K f m m =m = moles of solute mass of solvent (kg) = 2.41 m = 3.202 kg solvent 478 g x 1 mol 62.01 g K f water = 1.86 o C/m  T f = K f m = 1.86 o C/m x 2.41 m = 4.48 o C  T f = T f – T f 0 T f = T f –  T f 0 = 0.00 o C – 4.48 o C = -4.48 o C

15 Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutions Colligative properties are properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the solute particles. Vapor-Pressure Lowering Raoult’s law If the solution contains only one solute: X 1 = 1 – X 2 P 1 0 - P 1 =  P = X 2 P 1 0 0 = vapor pressure of pure solvent X 1 = mole fraction of the solvent X 2 = mole fraction of the solute P 1 = X 1 P 1 0

16 P A = X A P A 0 P B = X B P B 0 P T = P A + P B P T = X A P A 0 + X B P B 0 Ideal Solution

17 P T is greater than predicted by Raoults’s law P T is less than predicted by Raoults’s law Force A-B Force A-A Force B-B <& Force A-B Force A-A Force B-B >&

18 Fractional Distillation Apparatus

19 Temperature and Solubility O 2 gas solubility and temperature solubility usually decreases with increasing temperature

20 Pressure and Solubility of Gases The solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas over the solution (Henry’s law). c = kP c is the concentration (M) of the dissolved gas P is the pressure of the gas over the solution k is a constant for each gas (mol/Latm) that depends only on temperature low P low c high P high c

21 Osmotic Pressure (  ) Osmosis is the selective passage of solvent molecules through a porous membrane from a dilute solution to a more concentrated one. A semipermeable membrane allows the passage of solvent molecules but blocks the passage of solute molecules. Osmotic pressure (  ) is the pressure required to stop osmosis. dilute more concentrated

22 High P Low P Osmotic Pressure (  )  = MRT M is the molarity of the solution R is the gas constant T is the temperature (in K) solvent solution time

23 A cell in an: isotonic solution hypotonic solution hypertonic solution

24 Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutions Colligative properties are properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the solute particles. Vapor-Pressure Lowering P 1 = X 1 P 1 0 Boiling-Point Elevation  T b = K b m Freezing-Point Depression  T f = K f m Osmotic Pressure (  )  = MRT

25 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 0.1 m NaCl solution 0.1 m Na + ions & 0.1 m Cl - ions Colligative properties are properties that depend only on the number of solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the solute particles. 0.1 m NaCl solution0.2 m ions in solution van’t Hoff factor (i) = actual number of particles in soln after dissociation number of formula units initially dissolved in soln nonelectrolytes NaCl CaCl 2 i should be 1 2 3

26 Boiling-Point Elevation  T b = i K b m Freezing-Point Depression  T f = i K f m Osmotic Pressure (  )  = iMRT Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

27 A colloid is a dispersion of particles of one substance throughout a dispersing medium of another substance. Colloid versus solution collodial particles are much larger than solute molecules collodial suspension is not as homogeneous as a solution colloids exhibit the Tyndall effect

28

29 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids Hydrophilic: water-loving Hydrophobic: water-fearing Stabilization of a hydrophobic colloid

30 The Cleansing Action of Soap