# TOPIC 1 OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT

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TOPIC 1 OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT
Objectives Define observation, inference and prediction Explain how change can be described and measured Give some examples of cyclic changes in our environment

OBSERVATION – interaction of one or more of the senses.
Sight, hear, touch, taste, and smell Which senses do you use the most when you learn?

- - measure with a metric stick, telescope - - thermometer, scale
SENSES ARE LIMITED EXTEND our senses with ___________________ INSTRUMENTS -         measure with a metric stick, telescope -         thermometer, scale Sight Touch

INFERENCE - is an interpretation of one or more observations
Includes proposing explanation or reaching conclusions Una interpretacion de una o varias observaciones Incluye proponiendo una explicacion o alcanzando conclusiones

Inference Versus Observation
1. The age of the students in this Earth Science Class is 15. Inference Why? 2. The classroom door is made of wood. Observation Why?

PREDICTIONS - is an inference based on an observation that indicates what will happen in the future. What is this guy doing? Que esta haciendo este hombre?

Weather forecast

CLASSIFICATION Scientists group different objects and events together on the basis of common properties or___________ Make observation more meaningful Poner diferente objetos y eventos juntos basados en propiedades comunes o caracteristicas characteristics

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE What is change?
A detectable difference in the environment over time.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CHANGE
THE EVENTS OF CHANGE- Series of change is called an event The event may be such as INSTANTANEOUS lightning GRADUAL The event may be such as the wearing away of mountains and the drifting of continents Earth Science is concerned with the events of change.

FRAMES OF REFERENCE FOR CHANGE
We change observe Place events of change on a time scale- escala de tiempo RATE OF CHANGE -How much of a change takes place within a given period of time

GRAPHING CHANGE 1. Useful for interpreting data 2. List of numbers
One factor is changing with respect to another Un factor esta cambiando con respecto al otro

INTERPRETING GRAPHS Show relationships between ________ variables
Encena la relacion entre dos variables two Can you think of any?

Time and Temperature This is a Direct relationship
Temperature _________ as time increases increases DIRECT RELATIONSHIP Give me an example that would make this graph work in reference to the Sun.

INVERSE RELATIONSHIP Temperature decreases with passing time.
As time ___________ temperature decreases. increases INVERSE RELATIONSHIP Give me an example that would make this graph work in reference to the Time of the day. Think night time and temperature!!

CONSTANT CONSTANT Give me an example that would make this graph work in reference to Driving a car.Think about the speed limit!! Que es un ejemplo que haria esta grafica trabajar en referencia a manejando un carro. Piensen del limite de velocidad!!

CYCLIC CHANGES PHASES Moon changes are called _________
This cycle takes a __________ period of time. definite The change repeats over and over in exactly the same way. -Day and night -Seasons- temporadas -Position of stars and planets in the night sky -__________________________________________ Ocean Tides- Mareas oceanicas

CYCLIC CHANGES Give me some examples that would make this graph work in reference to Earth Science? What happens over and over again ? Que son unos ejemplos que harian esta grafica trabaje en referencia a la Ciencia de la Tierra? Que sucede una y otra vez?

Interaction of one or more of the senses.
To make an observation more meaningful. Hacer una observacion mas significativa An interpretation based on one or more observation. A series of events that can be instantaneous or gradual. Una serie de eventos que pueden ser instantanea o gradual

5. How does energy flow in relation to change? Como fluye la energia
en relacion con el cambio?    6.   Define prediction.      7. What are the differences between a cyclic and non-cyclic change? Energy flows from high to low energy. Los flujos de energia fluyen de alta a baja energia An inference based on an observation that indicates what will happen in the future. Cyclic change repeats itself, predictable. Cambios ciclicos se repiten, predecible Non-cyclic change is not predictable and only happens once(does not repeat itself). Cambios no ciclicos NO son predecible y solo pasa una vez.

Please label the following graphs 8. 9. 10. Direct Constant Inverse or indirect

Define equilibrium. To maintain a balance. Mantener un balance Define pollution. Solid, liquid or gas that can harm the environment. Gases, liquidos o solidos que perjudica el ambiente

Day and Night

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