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Regents Earth Science Unit I: Measurement and Change

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What is Earth Science? The study of our planet and the universe around us….

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Four Parts of Earth Science: 1.Geology—study of our planet

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2.Meteorology—study of our atmosphere

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3.Astronomy—study of Earth’s motions and other objects in space

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4.Oceanography—study of Earth’s oceans

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How do we study these four parts? Observations: using your 5 senses (sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing) **instruments can help (telescope, microscope, scale)

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From our observations, we can make… 1.Inferences: guesses about “why” an observation happens (like a hypothesis) You observe a person’s Breath—you infer…

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2.Classification: separate things by their traits (“grouping”)

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Why do we measure objects? To express our observations with greater precision

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Basic Units of Measurement (no math!) 1.Length: distance between 2 points (mm, cm, m, km) **we will use the Metric System

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The longer lines on the metric ruler are called… centimeters

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The shorter lines on the metric ruler are called… millimeters

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There are…… 10 millimeters in 1 centimeter 100 centimeters in 1 meter 1,000 millimeters in 1 meter 1,000 meters in 1 kilometer

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10.5 cm 105 mm Measure the turtle from the rear of its shell to the tip of its nose. Record its length in both centimeters and millimeters.

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Measure the Lines in cm & mm

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2.Mass: quantity of matter in an object— this is not weight!! (g, kg)

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3.Temperature: the amount of kinetic energy (K, °F, °C)

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Derived Units of Measurement (math is used) 1.Area: Length x Width (mm 2, m 2, km 2 ) 2.Volume: how much space an object takes up (Length x Width x Height) (cm 3,mL)

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Density: how much “stuff” (mass) is in a certain volume (amount of space) Density = Mass / Volume g/cm 3 or g/mL

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BlockMaterialMass (g)Volume (cm 3 )Density (g / cm 3 ) 1Steel 2Aluminum 3 Black Plastic 4Wood 5 Clear Acrylic 6Copper 7Bronze

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What two factors affect density? 1.Temperature *if the temp goes up—density goes down Heat

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2.Pressure *if pressure goes up—density goes up Pressure

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Density Changes with a Phase Change Gas to liquid—density increases Liquid to solid—density increases

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**with only one exception, solids are more dense than liquids of the same substance WATER! (because ice floats)

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Mr. Belanger Math 1.Determine what the problem is asking for 2.Look in the ESRT’s to find the formula 3.Find the Important information 4.Put the important information into the formula 5.Round (usually to the nearest tenth) 6.Units (we don’t want naked numbers)

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Is there error in all measurements? YES!!! Percent Error (Deviation) Difference from Accepted Value Percent Error = --------------------------------------------- x 100 Accepted Value No Neg. Numbers

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What is Change? Alteration of the environment …change can be: 1.Instant 2.Over long periods of time

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1.Cyclic Change: events will always repeat themselves in a type of pattern— can be predicted (seasons, moon phases, eclipses) What are the two types of changes?

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Non-Cyclic Change: events will not repeat themselves in a pattern—not predictable (earthquakes, weather) **most changes are cyclic and predictable

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Rate of Change: how fast or how slow something changes Change in Field Value Rate of Change = ______________________ Time Speed (mph) distance, temperature

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Energy Flow and Change…. Interface: boundary between regions with different properties

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…and the most important theme all year Dynamic Equilibrium: an attempt to BALANCE the changes taking place

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Scientific Notation Formula: M x 10 n M = a number anywhere from 1 to 9.99999 n = the number of times the decimal has been moved

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If you move the decimal to the left, n is positive If you move the decimal to the right, n is negative Scientific Notation……

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