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Lecture 12 Light: Reflection and Refraction Chapter 22.1 22.4 Outline History of Studies of Light Reflection of Light The Law of Refraction. Index of Refraction.

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Towards the Nature of Light Newton considered light as a stream of particles and explained reflection and refraction (1660s). Huygens proved that these phenomena can be understood if light is waves (1670s). Grimaldi (ca. 1660) and Young (1801) experimentally demonstrated that light exhibits diffraction and interference. Maxwell (1865) predicted that light is a form of electromagnetic waves. Work of Hertz (1880s), Planck (1900), and Einstein (1905) showed that light has dual nature.

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What is Light? Dual nature means that under some conditions light behaves as a wave, while under others as a particle. Light does not show properties of both wave and particle in the same experiment. Particles of light are called photons. E = h f E energy of a photon h = 6.63 10 34 J s Planck constant f frequency of the electromagnetic wave

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Geometric Optics Light travels in a straight-line path in a homogeneous medium. At a boundary between 2 different media the light: is reflected passes into the other medium (material) does both (partially) After entering a different medium, light continues traveling in a straight-line path. Definition: wave front is a surface of a wave with the same phase and amplitude.front

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Reflection of Light There are types of reflection: specular and diffuse. Picture = Reflection off a smooth surface (average distance between irregularities is smaller than the wavelength of the incident light) is specular. A line perpendicular to the surface is called a normal. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

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Refraction of Light Refraction is bending of light at a boundary between two different media.bending The incident, reflected, and refracted rays all lie in the same plane. The path of a light ray through a refracting surface is reversible. sin 2 v 2 = = constant sin 1 v 1

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The Law of Refraction Any medium is characterized by an index of refraction (n). c speed of light in vacuum n = v speed of light in a medium The frequency (f) of light, traveling between different media is constant. Since f = v, the wavelength of a light ray in media with different indices of refraction should change.

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The Law of Refraction v 1 =f 1 v 2 =f 2 f 1 = f 2 1 v 1 c/n 1 n 2 = = = 2 v 2 c/n 2 n 1 n = 0 / n Index of refraction is the ratio of the wavelength of light in vacuum and its wavelength in a medium The angle of refraction is related to the index of refraction by Snell’s law of refraction.law n 1 sin 1 = n 2 sin 2

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A Refraction Problem 1 = 30 o l =2cm Problem: A ray of light strikes a flat block of glass (n=1.50) at an angle of 30 o with the normal. Find: angles of incidence and refraction at each surface and the distance (d) of shift from the initial direction. d x2x2 x1x1 sin 2 = (n 1 /n 2 ) sin 1 d = (x 1 x 2 ) sin (90 o 1 ) 11 22 n 1 = 1 n 2 = 3/2 x 1 = l tan 30 o x 2 = l tan 2 2 = 19.5 o, x 1 x 2 =0.45cm d = 0.39 cm

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Summary Light is a form of electromagnetic waves. It shows properties of both a wave and a particle. Reflection and refraction are wave properties of light. For specular reflection, the angle of incidence equals to the angle of reflection Index of refraction is a property of a medium. It is a measure of the speed of light in a certain medium.

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