# A Project Is Not a Black Box Chapter 10. Topics Covered  Sensitivity Analysis  Break Even Analysis  Monte Carlo Simulation  Decision Trees.

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A Project Is Not a Black Box Chapter 10

Topics Covered  Sensitivity Analysis  Break Even Analysis  Monte Carlo Simulation  Decision Trees

How To Handle Uncertainty Sensitivity Analysis - Analysis of the effects of changes in sales, costs, etc. on a project. Scenario Analysis - Project analysis given a particular combination of assumptions. Simulation Analysis - Estimation of the probabilities of different possible outcomes. Break Even Analysis - Analysis of the level of sales (or other variable) at which the company breaks even.

Sensitivity Analysis Example Given the expected cash flow forecasts for Otobai Company’s Motor Scooter project, listed on the next slide, determine the NPV of the project given changes in the cash flow components using a 10% cost of capital. Assume that all variables remain constant, except the one you are changing.

Sensitivity Analysis Example - continued NPV= 3.43 billion Yen

Sensitivity Analysis Example - continued Possible Outcomes

Sensitivity Analysis Example - continued NPV Calculations for Optimistic Market Size Scenario NPV= +5.7 bil yen

Sensitivity Analysis Example - continued NPV Possibilities (Billions Yen)

Break Even Analysis  Point at which the NPV=0 is the break even point  Otobai Motors has a breakeven point of 85,000 units sold. Sales, 000’s PV (Yen) Billions 400 200 19.6 85 200 Break even NPV=0 PV Inflows PV Outflows

Monte Carlo Simulation  Step 1: Modeling the Project  Step 2: Specifying Probabilities  Step 3: Simulate the Cash Flows Modeling Process

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) +150(.6) +30(.4) +100(.6) +50(.4) -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? -150 0 or Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) +150(.6) +30(.4) +100(.6) +50(.4) -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? -150 0 or 812 456 660 364 148 Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) +150(.6) +30(.4) +100(.6) +50(.4) -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? -150 0 or 812 456 660 364 148 Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? -150 0 or 812 456 660 364 148 +150(.6) +30(.4) +100(.6) +50(.4) *450 331 Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? -150 0 or 812 456 660 364 148 +150(.6) +30(.4) +100(.6) +50(.4) NPV=444.55 NPV=888.18 NPV=550.00 NPV=184.55 *450 331 Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) 812 456 660 364 148 +150(.6) 710.73 +30(.4) +100(.6) 403.82 +50(.4) -150 0 *450 331 or NPV=444.55 NPV=888.18 NPV=550.00 NPV=184.55 -550 NPV= ? -250 NPV= ? Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) 812 456 660 364 148 +150(.6) 710.73 +30(.4) +100(.6) 403.82 +50(.4) -550 NPV=96.12 -250 NPV=117.00 -150 0 *450 331 or NPV=444.55 NPV=888.18 NPV=550.00 NPV=184.55 Turboprop Piston

Decision Trees 960 (.8) 220(.2) 930(.4) 140(.6) 800(.8) 100(.2) 410(.8) 180(.2) 220(.4) 100(.6) 812 456 660 364 148 +150(.6) 710.73 +30(.4) +100(.6) 403.82 +50(.4) -550 NPV=96.12 -250 NPV=117.00 -150 0 *450 331 or NPV=444.55 NPV=888.18 NPV=550.00 NPV=184.55 Turboprop Piston

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