CHAPTER ONE FINDING YOUR WAY
WHAT ARE LINES OF LATITUDE?
LINES OF LATITUDE Parallel lines drawn east to west .
They show distances north or south of the equator (0°). The equator in the largest line of latitude in terms of distance. Greatest distances from equator: 90°N (North Pole) 90°S (South Pole) 1°latitude = 111km
MATH PROBLEM Calculate the distance from the north pole to the south pole in km?
Special Lines of Latitude
These lines are important due to the tilt of the earth’s axis. Tropic of Cancer – 23.5º N of the equator. Tropic of Capricorn – 23.5º S of the equator. Arctic Circle – 66.5°N of the equator. Antarctic Circle – 66.5°S of the equator.
The Tropics The sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Cancer on June 21 (the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere) and the sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Capricorn on December 21 (the beginning of summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The area bounded by the Tropic of Cancer on the north and Tropic of Capricorn on the south is known as the "tropics."
Arctic and Antarctic Circle
The Arctic and Antarctic Circles are located at 66.5 degrees latitude. This means that on December 21, when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn at noon, it will not be visible from the Arctic Circle. On June 21st, when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer at noon, it is not visible from below the Antarctic Circle.
What are lines of longitude?
Lines drawn from North/South. Shows distances East/West of the Prime Meridian(0°) located in Greenwich, England. The Prime Meridian divides earth into Western and Eastern Hemisphere.
MORE ON LONGITUDE…… All lines of longitude, except the Prime Meridian, lie 180º east or west of the prime meridian. At 180º east or west of the Prime Meridian is the International Date Line, which lies on the opposite side of the earth.
Lines of Longitude There are 24 longitude lines, each representing an hour difference from Greenwich. This is why it takes the Earth 24 hours to rotate on its axis. When it is 12 noon in Greenwich, it is 12 midnight on the other side of the Earth, the International Dateline.
MATH PROBLEM If there are 24 lines of longitude and the earth consists of 360º, how many degrees are between each line of longitude? How many degrees of longitude account for a 1 hour time difference?
Finding location using latitude and longitude.
Coordinates – where lines of latitude and longitude intersect. Absolute Location – exact point on earth’s surface using coordinates. Relative Location – General location where place is located. Described in terms of direction from another place. F
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