Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 Social Perspectives Chapter 1: An Invitation to Sociology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 1 Social Perspectives Chapter 1: An Invitation to Sociology Ms. Harris – Austin High School
2 Objectives Define Sociology Outline contributions of the major pioneers of sociologySummarize the development of sociology in the USAIdentify the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology todayDefine SociologyDescribe two uses of the sociological perspectiveDistinguish sociology from other social sciences
3 3. Sociological perspective – a view that looks at behavior of groups, not individuals 4. Social structure – the patterned interaction of people in social relationshipsKey Terms1. Perspective – a particular point of view 2. Sociology – the scientific study of social structure (human social behavior)
4 5. Sociological imagination- the ability to see the link between society and self
5 Sec. 1 -- The Sociological Perspective What is sociology?The scientific study places focus is on the social, or group, level.What is unique about sociology?Psychologists may study the individual, sociologists study the group.
6 The Importance of Patterns 6. How do group behavior and individual behavior differ?Group dynamics are created when individuals come together7. Why do people conform?Groups encourage conformity. Members of the group think, feel, and behave in similar ways.
7 8. Explain the significance of patterns for sociologists. The patterned interaction of people in social relationships identifies social structure
8 9. What is gained by using our sociological imagination 9. What is gained by using our sociological imagination? Knowing how social forces affect our lives can prevent us from being prisoners of those forces
9 10. How does the sociological imagination help people to understand the effects of society on their personal lives? Using sociological imagination, we challenge conventional social wisdom (traditional beliefs)Give an example from your life that illustrates conformity within a group.
11 Key Terms11. Positivism – the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation
12 the study of social stability and order the study of social change 12. Social statics13. Social dynamicsthe study of social stability and orderthe study of social change
13 15. Capitalist – person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth 14. Bourgeoisie – class owning the means for producing wealth
14 16. Proletariat – working class; those who labor for the bourgeoisie
15 17. Class conflict – the ongoing struggle between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (working) classes.
16 18. Mechanical solidarity – social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs, enforced conformity, and dependence on tradition and family19. Organic solidarity – Social interdependence based on a high degree of specialization in roles
17 20. Verstehen – understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the place of others
18 21. Rationalization – the mind-set emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning
19 22. What were Auguste Comte’s major ideas? Positivism – he meant that science based on knowledge can be positive – or trueDistinguished between social statics (stability) and social dynamics (change)Father of SociologyTheories published in Positive Philosophy
20 23. What were Harriet Martineau’s contributions? Wrote Society in America, which established her as a pioneering feminist theoristLinked slavery and the oppression of womenHer English translation of Comte’s book is the most readable one – even today.
21 24. Why did Herbert Spencer oppose social reform? Introduced the theory of social change called Social Darwinism. He did not think people should interfere with evolutionary social change.
22 25. Who was Karl Marx?German scholar whose ideas affected the study of sociologyIdentified social classes in the 19th-century industrial society and predicted all societies would contain only bourgeoisie and proletariatPredicted class conflict would lead to a communistic society.He was convinced that a planned revolution would speed up change from capitalism to communism.
23 26. What were Emile Durkeim’s greatest contributions? Mechanical solidarity – society that existed in preindustrial times.Organic solidarity – social interdependency based on specialized roles.Introduced technique that led to ground-breaking research on suicide.Showed that human social behavior must be explained by social factors, rather than psychological ones.
24 27. Who was Max Weber? Believed in method of verstehen Rationalization was key to change in preindustrial to an industrial societyPioneered techniques to prevent personal biases in investigationGerman who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of CapitalismSingle most important influence on development of sociological theory
25 Sociology in America Led social reform to achieve social justice 28. Why should we remember Jane Addams?Led social reform to achieve social justiceCo-founded Hull HouseHull House helped people who needed refugePlaced focus on social problems caused by imbalance of power among the social classesNobel Peace Price in 1931
26 McDonaldization of Higher Education DisadvantagesAdvantagesUniversities are treating students like customersEducation is being dehumanizedLess choice among instructors on satellite campusesNo opportunity to form relationshipsDistance learning -Efficiency – maximum results with minimum effortCalculability involves estimation – effort can be associated with predictabilityPredictabilityControl – replace humans with technology
27 Other McDonaldized industries Churchesdoctors offices,hospitals,government agencies,gambling casinos,DMV,creditors
29 Key Terms30. Functionalism – approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society29. Theoretical perspective – a set of assumptions accepted as true
30 Unintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society 31. Manifest functions intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society32. Latent functionsUnintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society
31 34. Conflict perspective -- Approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society33. DysfunctionNegative consequence of an aspect of society
32 The ability to control the behavior of others 35. PowerThe ability to control the behavior of others
33 36. SymbolAnything that stands for something else and has an agreed-upon meaning attached to it
34 Approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances 37. symbolic interactionismApproach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols38. DramaturgyApproach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances
35 The Role of Theoretical Perspectives 39. What is a theoretical perspective?
36 Functionalism40. How does functionalism explain social change?Functionalists believe that society returns to stability after an upheaval by changing in a way to be similar to what it was before41. How does functionalism view values?The consensus of values account for cooperation found in any society (eg. Americans, in general, agree on democracy and equal opportunity.)
37 Symbolic Interactionism FunctionalismConflict PerspectiveSymbolic InteractionismA society is a relatively integrated wholeA society experiences inconsistency and conflict everywherePeople’s interpretations of symbols are based on the meanings they learn from othersA society tends to seek relative stabilityA society is continually subjected to change.People base their interaction on their interpretations of symbolsMost aspects of a society contribute well-being and survivalA society involves the constraint and coercion of some members by othersSymbols permit people to have internal conversations. Thus, they can gear their interpretation to the behavior that they think others expect of them and the behavior they expect of othersA society rests on the consensus of its members
38 Conflict PerspectiveWhat is the role of conflict and constraint?How does the conflict perspective explain social change?Which perspective is better?Symbolic InteractionismWhat is the significance of symbols in symbolic interactionism?What are the basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism?
39 Indicate whether the following statements represent functionalism (F), the conflict perspective ( C ), or symbolic interactionism (S).___ 42. Societies are in relative balance___ 43. Power is one of the most importantelements in social life___ 44. Religion helps hold a societytogether morally___ 45. Symbols are crucial to social life
40 ___ 46. Many elements of a society exist to benefit the powerful___ 47. Different segments of a society compete toachieve their own self-interest ratherthan cooperate to benefit others___ 48. Social life should be understood from theviewpoint of the individuals involved___ 49. Social change is constantly occurring___ 50. Conflict is harmful and disruptive to society