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Lesson 14-1 Counting Outcomes

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5-Minute Check on Chapter 2 Transparency 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 1.Evaluate 42 - |x - 7| if x = -3 2.Find 4.1 (-0.5) Simplify each expression 3. 8(-2c + 5) + 9c 4. (36d – 18) / (-9) 5.A bag of lollipops has 10 red, 15 green, and 15 yellow lollipops. If one is chosen at random, what is the probability that it is not green? 6. Which of the following is a true statement Standardized Test Practice: ACBD 8/4 < 4/8-4/8 < -8/4-4/8 > -8/4-4/8 > 4/8

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Objectives Count outcomes using a tree diagram Count outcomes using the Fundamental Counting Principle

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Vocabulary Tree diagram – Sample space – Event – Fundamental Counting Principle – Factorial –

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Tree Diagram To map out all possible combinations of things, a tree diagram is useful to visually see why the Fundamental Counting Principle works. The Big Meal Spinach Salad Shrimp Salad House Salad Roast Beef Salmon Apple Pie Chocolate Cake Apple Pie Chocolate Cake Roast Beef Salmon Apple Pie Chocolate Cake Apple Pie Chocolate Cake Roast Beef Salmon Apple Pie Chocolate Cake Apple Pie Chocolate Cake 12 Different Combinations of Salads, Meal, and Desert 3 2 2 = 12

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Factorials n!, read n-factorial, is defined by the following: n (n-1) (n-2) … 3 2 1 the product of every number between n and 1 Examples: 5! = 5 4 3 2 1 = 120 7! = 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 5040 Remember too: 5! = 5 4! 7! = 7 6 5! (Useful in dividing factorials)

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Example 1 At football games, a student concession stand sells sandwiches on either wheat or rye bread. The sandwiches come with salami, turkey, or ham, and either chips, a brownie, or fruit. Use a tree diagram to determine the number of possible sandwich combinations. Answer:The tree diagram shows that there are 18 possible combinations.

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Example 2 The Too Cheap computer company sells custom made personal computers. Customers have a choice of 11 different hard drives, 6 different keyboards, 4 different mice, and 4 different monitors. How many different custom computers can you order? Multiply to find the number of custom computers. hard drive choices keyboard choices mice choices monitor choices number of custom computers 611441056 Answer:The number of different custom computers is 1056.

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Example 3 There are 8 students in the Algebra Club at Central High School. The students want to stand in a line for their yearbook picture. How many different ways could the 8 students stand for their picture? The number of ways to arrange the students can be found by multiplying the number of choices for each position.

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Example 3 cont There are now six choices for the third position. This process continues until there is only one choice left for the last position. Let n represent the number of arrangements. Answer:There are 40,320 different ways they could stand. There are eight people from which to choose for the first position. After choosing a person for the first position, there are seven people left from which to choose for the second position.

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Example 4 Find the value of 9!. Definition of factorial Simplify. Answer:

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Example 5a Jill and Miranda are going to a National Park for their vacation. Near the campground where they are staying, there are 8 hiking trails. How many different ways can they hike all of the trails if they hike each trail only once? Use a factorial. Definition of factorial Simplify. Answer:There are 40,320 ways in which Jill and Miranda can hike all 8 trails.

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Example 5b Jill and Miranda are going to a National Park for their vacation. Near the campground where they are staying, there are 8 hiking trails. If they only have time to hike on 5 of the trails, how many ways can they do this? Use the Fundamental Counting Principle to find the sample space. Fundamental Counting Principle Simplify. Answer:There are 6720 ways that Jill and Miranda can hike 5 of the trails.

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Summary & Homework Summary: –Use a tree diagram to make a list of possible outcomes –If an event M can occur m ways and is followed by an event N that can occur n ways, the event M followed by event N can occur m n ways Homework: –none

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