Presentation on theme: "Explorations, Encounters, and Imperialism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Explorations, Encounters, and Imperialism Global Studies 9Mrs. Hart and Mrs. Bernier
2 The Eve of ExplorationThe European countries wanted to find a new all-water route to Asia. They were motivated by the goods and riches that came from Asia. The two countries that took the lead were Spain and Portugal. They had stable governments, resources, and the technology to support exploration.
3 Spanish ReconquistaSpain became a powerful nation with the marriage of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. Together they were able to force the Muslims from Spain. This completed the Reconquista. Isabella then wanted to establish religious unity, and launched a crusade against Muslims and Jews who refused to convert to Christianity.
4 Reasons for European Exploration The Europeans wanted to reopen global trade links that had been interrupted by Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean. But Italian and Muslim merchants controlled key trade routes between Asia and Europe. To by-pass the Italians and Muslims, they needed an all-water route.
5 Technology that Aided Exploration Printing Press – gave geographer and navigators more information more readily.Gunpowder – gave the Europeans the advantage of firepower on the seas.Astrolabe – enabled sailors to determine latitude at sea.Caravel – ship with triangular sails that enabled explorers to sail against the wind.Cartographers – created better, more accuratedetailed maps.
6 The PortuguesePrince Henry : started a school of navigation, after gathering experts in map-making, ship-building, and science. Bartholomeu Dias – rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Vasco da Gama: rounded the tip of Africa, traveled across the Indian Ocean, and entered a port in India.
7 Columbus’s VoyagesKing Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain wanted to gain a share of the rich spice trade and to spread Christianity. They hired Christopher Columbus to do it. However instead of reaching the Spice Islands off the coast of India, he reached islands in the Caribbean.
8 Line of DemarcationBoth the Portuguese and the Spanish claimed the lands that were explored by Christopher Columbus. To settle the issue, the Pope established the Line of Demarcation, which divided the non-European world into two zones. Spain could explore and trade west of the line, while Portugal could explore and trade east of the line.
9 Competition for Colonies The European countries wanted to build overseas empires and to develop a global trade network. To do this, they established a policy of imperialism. Imperialism is the domination of one country over the political, economic, and cultural life of another country or region.
10 Imperialism: AfricaPortugal: explored the coasts of Africa, set up forts and trading posts, but weren’t able to explore the interior of the continent. Dutch: established a colony known asthe Cape Town settlement in the 1600s. The farmers who settled there were called Boers and they enslaved many Africans whom they saw as inferior.
11 Imperialism: Asia and the Spice Trade The Portuguese took control of the spice trade from the Muslims. First they captured the port of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula, then conquered cities on the east coast of Africa. They were powerful at sea, but not on land. However by the late 1500s, their power in the Indian Ocean was declining.
12 The Dutch and the Spice Trade The Dutch took control of the spice trade from the Portuguese. A wealthy group of Dutch merchants formed the Dutch East India Company, seized Malacca, and started trading with China. The Dutch set up close ties with local people in areas that they conquered. Their empire would not decline until the 1700s.
13 Spanish ColonizationSpain founded colonies in Southeast Asia in the 1500s. They paid for Ferdinand Magellan and his crew to circumnavigate the world. During the trip, he claimed the Philippines for Spain. He was later killed there and did not finish the voyage. His crew however went on to finish the voyage.
14 English and French Colonization The English and French competed for colonies in India. Weak rulers of the Mughal Dynasty weakened the kingdom. Both the French and the British made allies with local rulers and set up their own Indian armies. Eventually the British pushed the French out and held the real power in the area.
15 Spanish Conquest of the Americas Spanish conquerors known as conquistadors traveled to the Americas in the years following Columbus’s voyages. They came in search of gold and to spread Christianity. They eventually conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayans, the Native American groups who lived in the Americas at that time.
16 Reasons for Spanish Success The Spanish used armor, horses, and weapons that the Indians had never seen before.They found allies among Native American groups who hated being ruled by the Aztecs or Incas.Diseases brought by Europeans killed millions of native people, causing them to believe that their own gods had deserted them.