Presentation on theme: "“Muckrakers”- Investigative Journalists in the Progressive Era"— Presentation transcript:
1 “Muckrakers”- Investigative Journalists in the Progressive Era
2 Who were they?The muckrakers were people who revealed the injustices of the Gilded Age industries to the public. They were the people who changed the U.S. during the Progressive Era. Through books, newspaper and magazine articles, and photos, they exposed the plight of the very poor.
3 Jacob RiisJacob Riis was a poor Danish immigrant- he had even been homeless for a whileHe took photos for their “shock value,” to shock the middle class into helping the poorUnlike many reformers, he argued that poverty was not caused by a lack of work ethic. He praised “the honest, thrifty poor who live lives of heroism such as we cannot live.”
7 Nellie BlyInvestigative journalist known for her undercover work and “stunt” journalismShe wrote popular, scathing articles about the working conditions of factory girls and the misogyny of unfair divorce lawsWent undercover as an amnesiac to expose horrible conditions in the Blackwell Island Insane Asylum- “a human rat trap.”Sided with strikers and adovcated for orphans“Around the World In 80 Days” stunt made her a celebrityNellie Blya) Investigative journalist known for undercover work and “stunt” journalism in 1880sb) Born Elizabeth Jane Cochran, “Nellie Bly” was her pen name, based on a popular songc) She wrote hard-hitting articles about the working conditions of factory girls and the misogyny of unfair divorce laws. However, her editors wanted her to write about things like fashion and flower shows.d) Her bold personality and fearless investigations led her to be hired by the New York World.e) She pretended to be insane to reveal the horrible conditions at New York’s Blackwell Island Asylum. She wrote in vivid detail about beatings and rotten food in an article that outraged readers and caused a scandal. She described the asylum as “a human rat-trap. It is easy to get in, but once there it is impossible to get out.”f) She’s most famous for her “Around the World In Eighty Days” stunt, which made her a celebrity.g) She was the only reporter to side with the Pullman Railroad strikers. After she retired, used her fame to help orphans find homes.
8 Lincoln Steffens He was the son of a wealthy businessman A reporter in New York- Ida Tarbell’s boss!He wrote the book Shame of the CitiesSteffens investigated corruption in the municipal govt. in cities. He also wrote articles exposing poor living conditions in NYCHis reputation was destroyed when he testified in favor of a friend accused of blowing up an anti-union building.Lincoln Steffens (1900s)New York reporterWrote The Shame of the CitiesOriginally a series articles.Investigated corruption in the municipal government in cities.Son of a wealthy businessman, he developed radical views in collegeIda Tarbell’s bossHe wrote articles exposing poor living conditions in cityHis reputation was destroyed when he testified in favor of a friend accused of blowing up an anti-union building
9 Ida TarbellShe was a teacher, an author, and a journalist. Growing up, her town was utterly ruined when Rockefeller made a secret deal with the railroad“They had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me.”She wrote many magazine series and biographies. The History of the Standard Oil Company ( ), negatively portrayed Rockefeller and his unethical tactics. It had nineteen parts.Ida TarbellTeacher, author and journalistKnown for her eloquent writingAs a child, her town was entirely bankrupted when Rockefeller made a secret deal with the railroad"They had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me." -Tarbell talking about RockefellerWrote magazine series and biographiesWrote The History of the Standard Oil Company,Negatively portrayed Rockefeller and his unethical tacticsIt was meant to be a three part series, but was so popular that there were eventually nineteen parts.
10 Upton SinclairAs a child, he alternated between living with his poor parents and rich grandparents- exposed to inequality early on, he became a socialistInfluenced by Tarbell and SteffensWrote bestseller The Jungle in 1906, exposing unsanitary and dangerous conditions in the meat-packing industryHelped in the passage of the Pure Food and Drug ActUpton SinclairAmerican authorAs a child, he alternated between living with his very poor parents and his rich grandparents. He said that being exposed to so much inequality led him to become a socialist.He established the Intercollegiate Socialist SocietyInfluenced by Tarbell and SteffensWrote The Jungle in 1906About conditions in the meat-packing industry.Best seller- President Roosevelt met with him and said "radical action must be taken to do away with the efforts of arrogant and selfish greed on the part of the capitalist."Helped in the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act.Also wrote The Brass CheckExposed yellow journalism and the limitations of “free press”First code of ethics for journals created after the book.Won the Pulitzer Prize for fictionDuring World War 1, he fiercely advocated for free speech
11 Lewis Hines Sociologist and a photographer. He took photographs of child labor in the 1900s that made the public call for child labor laws.One of the first photographers to take documentary photographs and got down to the level of the children to literally get their perspective.“There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work.” -Lewis Hines, 1908Unlike Riis, he tried to beautify the poorLewis HinesSociologist and photographerTook photographs of child labor in the 1900sThese helped the changing in child labor laws.He was one of the first photographers to take documentary photographsHe got down to the level of the children to literally get their perspective"There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work."- Lewis Hine, 1908
15 Modern Muckrakers Michael Moore Makes movies about social issues Shows people what is wrong with our society and brings about awarenessMade the movie Sicko about U.S. health careMichael MooreMovie Sicko
16 Why are they so important? The actions of the “muckrakers” led to the reformation of society. They caused laws to be passed to protect the people and their rights that otherwise would never have been created. These people gave their best efforts to better the people of the United States, and they deserve to be remembered by future generations.
17 Works Cited"Biography: Ida Tarbell." PBS.org. WGBH Educational Foundation, n.d. Web. 8 OctDavis, Kay. "Jacob Riis." Documenting "the Other Half" the Social Reform Photograohy of Jacob Riis & Lewis Line. U of Virginia, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Jacob Riis: Shedding Light on NYC's 'Other Half.'" NPR Books. NPR, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Lewis Wickes Hine." The J. Paul Getty Museum. J. Paul Getty Trust, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Lincoln Steffens." Britannica Academic Edition. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Lincoln Steffens." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Muckrakers." US History. Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Nellie Bly." PBS.org. WGBH Educational Foundation, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Teaching with Documents: Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor." National Archives. U.S. National Archives and Record Administration, n.d. Web. 8 Oct"Upton Sinclair." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Oct