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The process of formulating responses remains

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Presentation on theme: "The process of formulating responses remains"— Presentation transcript:

1 Formulating Effective Responses and Recommendations: A Structured Approach

2 The process of formulating responses remains
constant even with different types of requesters, requests, or settings. Pharmacists must extend their knowledge of drugs & therapeutics to the clinical management or for large populations to ensure that DI is appropriately interpreted and correctly applied.

3 Accepting Responsibility & Eliminating Barriers:
* The pharmacist’s responsibilities include: 1. Provide answers to DI questions. 2. Assist in resolving therapeutic dilemma 3. Assist in managing patient medication regimens.

4 It is NOT common to find comprehensive answers in the literature that completely & effectively address specific situations or circumstances that clinicians face in their daily practices. Responses & recommendations must be synthesized thoughtfully using: information and knowledge gathered from diverse sources & added skills & competence in problem solving & direct patient care to effectively manage the care of patients & resolve complex situations.

5 First, pharmacists must overcome impediments, i.e.:
False perception that most DI requests do not pertain to specific patients. 2. The false perception that “casual interactions” with requesters preclude the need for in-depth analysis& extensive involvement in patient management. 3. Pharmacists sometimes oversimplify their interactions with requesters & fail to identify the context or the significance of the question. 4. The absence of sufficient background information & pertinent patient data diminish the ability of the pharmacist to provide effective responses.

6 Identifying the Genuine Need:
*Most queries the pharmacists receive often involve specific patients & involve unique circumstances. *However, the requesters are usually vague in verbalizing their needs & provide specific information only when asked which doesn’t obviate the need for such critical information or relive the pharmacist of the duty to collect it.

7 Therefore, it is the pharmacist’s responsibility to obtain the needed information completely & efficiently using questioning strategies. Good communication skills in both listening & questioning are important for enabling the pharmacist to: 1. Gather relevant information. & 2. Understand the “real” question.

8 Without such information the pharmacist will:
Risk providing general responses (not pt. specific) Provide information that can be misinterpreted or misapplied. Compromise the pharmacist credibility. Jeopardize patient care.

9 Therefore, the pharmacist should recognize that requesters needs often go beyond a superficial answer to a primary question. The pharmacist should always anticipate additional questions or concerns, including those not directly asked by requester. See cases.

10 Generally, the pharmacist must learn to rely on:
Patient care skills. Problem solving skills. Insight. Common sense. in formulating answers or recommendations.

11 Formulating the Response:
The steps in formulating a response include: Assembling & organizing a patient database. Gathering information about disease states. Collecting medication information. Obtaining pertinent background information. Identifying other relevant factors & special circumstances. (See Table 3-3)may not all be relevant

12 Developing a patient database requires collecting pertinent information from:
-caregiver -health-care provider -medical chart -other patient records * Comprehensive medication history may also be obtained by the pharmacist from different sources.

13 Once data are collected & carefully assembled, it must be critically analyzed & evaluated before final response &recommendation are synthesized. Analysis & Synthesis: Assist in: Forming opinions Arriving at judgments Ultimately, drawing conclusions

14 Analysis: A critical assessment of the nature & significance of individual ideas, elements, or factors. It involves separating the information into isolated parts so that each can be critically assessed. Analysis requires: 1. Thoughtful review. 2. Evaluation of the weight of available evidence. 3. Consideration of pertinent positive & negative findings.

15 Once information is carefully analyzed, synthesis can begin.
Is the careful, systematic, & orderly process of combining or blending varied elements, ideas, or factors into a coherent response through the use of logic & deductive reasoning. Synthesis relies on: -type & quality of data gathered -how data is organized, viewed, & evaluated It involves the careful integration of critical information about: the patient , the disease, the medication with the background information to arrive at a judgment or conclusion.

16 Response & Recommendation:
An effective response must : ANSWER the question. Other desired characteristics of a response: - timely, current - accurate, complete - concise, well referenced - clear, logical - objective, balanced - free of bias or flaws - applicable for specific circumstances - answers important related questions - address specific patients or situations

17 The response should begin with an introduction to the topic & systematically present specific findings. Conclusions & recommendations are also included in response with pertinent reference citations from literature. In formulating a response, you should: -Disclose all available information relevant to question -Present all reasonable options with explanations & evaluations of each

18 Specific recommendation must be scientifically sound & clearly justified.
Follow-up: Allows pharmacist to know if recommendation was accepted & properly implemented. A hallmark of a true professional & demonstrates pharmacist’s commitment to patient care. Required to re-evaluate recommendation & make modification. Allows pharmacist to receive valuable feedback from other clinicians & to learn from experience.


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