Presentation on theme: "The process of formulating responses remains"— Presentation transcript:
1 Formulating Effective Responses and Recommendations: A Structured Approach
2 The process of formulating responses remains constant even with different types of requesters, requests, or settings.Pharmacists must extend their knowledge of drugs & therapeutics to the clinical management or for large populations to ensure that DI is appropriately interpreted and correctly applied.
3 Accepting Responsibility & Eliminating Barriers: * The pharmacist’s responsibilities include:1. Provide answers to DI questions.2. Assist in resolving therapeutic dilemma3. Assist in managing patient medicationregimens.
4 It is NOT common to find comprehensive answers in the literature that completely & effectively address specific situations or circumstances that clinicians face in their daily practices.Responses & recommendations must be synthesized thoughtfully using:information and knowledge gathered from diverse sources &added skills & competence in problem solving & direct patient careto effectively manage the care of patients & resolve complex situations.
5 First, pharmacists must overcome impediments, i.e.: False perception that most DI requests do not pertain to specific patients.2. The false perception that “casual interactions” with requesters preclude the need for in-depth analysis& extensive involvement in patient management.3. Pharmacists sometimes oversimplify their interactions with requesters & fail to identify the context or the significance of the question.4. The absence of sufficient background information & pertinent patient data diminish the ability of the pharmacist to provide effective responses.
6 Identifying the Genuine Need: *Most queries the pharmacists receive ofteninvolve specific patients & involve uniquecircumstances.*However, the requesters are usually vague inverbalizing their needs & provide specificinformation only when asked which doesn’tobviate the need for such critical informationor relive the pharmacist of the duty to collect it.
7 Therefore, it is the pharmacist’s responsibility to obtain the needed information completely & efficiently using questioning strategies.Good communication skills in both listening & questioning are important for enabling the pharmacist to:1. Gather relevant information.& 2. Understand the “real” question.
8 Without such information the pharmacist will: Risk providing general responses (not pt. specific)Provide information that can be misinterpreted or misapplied.Compromise the pharmacist credibility.Jeopardize patient care.
9 Therefore, the pharmacist should recognize that requesters needs often go beyond a superficial answer to a primary question.The pharmacist should always anticipate additional questions or concerns, including those not directly asked by requester.See cases.
10 Generally, the pharmacist must learn to rely on: Patient care skills.Problem solving skills.Insight.Common sense.in formulating answers or recommendations.
11 Formulating the Response: The steps in formulating a response include:Assembling & organizing a patient database.Gathering information about disease states.Collecting medication information.Obtaining pertinent background information.Identifying other relevant factors & special circumstances.(See Table 3-3)may not all be relevant
12 Developing a patient database requires collecting pertinent information from: -caregiver-health-care provider-medical chart-other patient records* Comprehensive medication history may also be obtained by the pharmacist from different sources.
13 Once data are collected & carefully assembled, it must be critically analyzed & evaluated before final response &recommendation are synthesized.Analysis & Synthesis:Assist in:Forming opinionsArriving at judgmentsUltimately, drawing conclusions
14 Analysis:A critical assessment of the nature & significance of individual ideas, elements, or factors.It involves separating the information into isolated parts so that each can be critically assessed.Analysis requires:1. Thoughtful review.2. Evaluation of the weight of available evidence.3. Consideration of pertinent positive & negativefindings.
15 Once information is carefully analyzed, synthesis can begin. Is the careful, systematic, & orderly process of combining or blending varied elements, ideas, or factors into a coherent response through the use of logic & deductive reasoning.Synthesis relies on:-type & quality of data gathered-how data is organized, viewed, & evaluatedIt involves the careful integration of critical informationabout: the patient , the disease, the medication with thebackground information to arrive at a judgment orconclusion.
16 Response & Recommendation: An effective response must : ANSWER the question.Other desired characteristics of a response:- timely, current- accurate, complete- concise, well referenced- clear, logical- objective, balanced- free of bias or flaws- applicable for specific circumstances- answers important related questions- address specific patients or situations
17 The response should begin with an introduction to the topic & systematically present specific findings.Conclusions & recommendations are also included in response with pertinent reference citations from literature.In formulating a response, you should:-Disclose all available information relevant to question-Present all reasonable options with explanations & evaluations of each
18 Specific recommendation must be scientifically sound & clearly justified. Follow-up:Allows pharmacist to know if recommendation was accepted & properly implemented.A hallmark of a true professional & demonstrates pharmacist’s commitment to patient care.Required to re-evaluate recommendation & make modification.Allows pharmacist to receive valuable feedback from other clinicians & to learn from experience.