Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Elements, & Compounds Biology II D. Mitchell."— Presentation transcript:
Atoms, Elements, & Compounds Biology II D. Mitchell
Atom smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down.
Atomic Structure Atoms consist of 3 kinds of subatomic particles: electrons- negatively charged subatomic particles that occupy the outer electron shells protons- positively charged subatomic particles that occupy the nucleus of an atom. neutrons- subatomic particles that have no charge (neutral) and occupy the nucleus of an atom.
ATOMS have a neutral charge because of its equal number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.
Different energy levels (electron cloud) can hold a certain numbers of electrons. Atoms are most stable when the outermost energy level is full! Electron level# of electrons 12 28 318 432 550 672
(2)Element a substance made of one kind of atom can not be broken down to other substances by chemical means.
91 elements naturally occur on Earth. Life requires about 25 chemical elements. Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up 96% of the human body’s mass.
Elements in the Human Body Element Symbol 1OxygenO6 PhosphorusP 2CarbonC7 PotassiumK 3Hydrogen H8 SulfurS 4NitrogenN9 SodiumNa 5CalciumCa * Most abundant to least abundant
Periodic Table of Elements Lists the following information: 1.Name of element 2.Symbol 3.Atomic number: the number of protons. (The number of protons = the number of electrons.) 4.Atomic mass (Mass Number): the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
(3) Compound substance made of two or more elements bonded together in a fixed ratio. represented by a chemical formula that identifies the elements in the compound and their proportions. properties are different from the properties of the elements that make up the compound
Examples (1) NaCl -Sodium Chloride * composed of the elements Sodium(Na) and Chlorine (Cl) (2) H 2 O – Water *composed of the elements Hydrogen(H) and Oxygen (O) (3) C 3 H 6 O 3 Glucose *composed of the elements Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O)
Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. Atoms join with other atoms to form stable substances. The attraction between atoms is a result of their positive or negative charges. Atoms join to form compounds and molecules.
Electrons determine whether an atom will bond. The number of electrons in the outermost electron shell(valence electrons) determine how many bonds can be formed.
Oxidation numbers indicates the number of electrons lost, gained, or shared as a result of chemical bonding
What is a chemical bond? A chemical bond is formed when electrons from two atoms interact and join.
When atoms with incomplete outer shells interact, they share, receive (gain), or donate (lose) electrons. Types of Chemical Bonds 1. Ionic Bond 2. Covalent Bond 3. Hydrogen Bond
Ionic Bonds Occur when one atom gains or loses a valence electron. Atoms that lose electrons are positively charged. Atoms that gain electrons are negatively charged. The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other.
Characteristics Form between metals and nonmetals Ionic compounds tend to form salts. Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water. Ionic compounds easily conduct electricity.
Covalent Bonds A COVALENT BOND results when two atoms "share" valence electrons between them. This most commonly occurs when two nonmetals bond together. Covalent bonds form molecules (O 2, H 2 ) and compounds (CO 2 )
Hydrogen Bonds A hydrogen bond is a bond formed due to a weak attraction between polar molecules of opposite charge As the name "hydrogen bond" implies, one part of the bond always involves a hydrogen atom. Hydrogen bonds hold the two strands of the DNA together.
Why are chemical bonds important? The type of chemical bond that occurs in a molecule or substance in part defines its structure, appearance, and properties. Example: NaCl and HCl Both contain Cl Table salt and hydrogen chloride