Pre-school institutions (nurseries and kindergartens) Primary school Secondary school Higher education
For children aged 1 – 6 Attended by 35% of the children (116,382 children in 2009)
Lasts for eight years (6 or 7 until 14 or 15) Compulsory education Article 65 of the Constitution states: Primary education shall be compulsory and free. Uniform curriculum
Lower level or classroom teaching (1 st to 4 th grade) – one teacher except for Foreign Language and Religious Education Higher level or subject teaching (5 th to 8 th grade) – each subject taught by a particular teacher
Not compulsory Article 65 of the Constitution states: Secondary and higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity Last for three or four years
Types of school State graduation examination Acces to higher education
Universities Public polytechnics Schools of professional higher education
Institutions of higher education that organise and implement university studies in at least two scientific and/or artistic areas in a larger number of fields. Universities of Zagreb, Osijek, Split, Rijeka, Pula, Dubrovnik and Zadar Universities include components that are legal persons and are called faculties or art academies. They carry out university study programmes and conduct research
In Croatia there are: ◦ private polytechnics (e.g. Polytechnic in Velika Gorica, VERN Business College, Polytechnic for media, business and management etc.) ◦ 25 private schools of professional higher education (e.g. American College of Management and Technology, International Graduate School for Management in Zagreb, RRiF School of Financial Management, etc.)
Undergraduate Graduate Postgraduate (doctoral study) Exception: integrated undergraduate and graduate study (e.g. Law)
The first level normally lasts for three years during which students earn 180 ECTS A smaller number of undergraduate studies in Croatia are administered as four-year studies during which students earn 240 ECTS (e.g. Social Work) University degree: bachelor
The second level normally lasts for two years during which students earn 120 ECTS. A smaller number of graduate studies in Croatia are administered as one-year studies in which students earn 60 ECTS. After the completion of the studies, students receive the diploma and the academic title of master with the indication of the profession.
The third level normally lasts for three years. After its completion, students receive the diploma and the academic title of the doctor of science with the indication of the scientific or art field. Universities autonomously regulate the usage of ECTS in postgraduate university studies.
Public polytechnics and schools of professional higher education are institutions of higher education that implement professional studies. These two types of higher education institutions differ in the scope of their curriculum: polytechnics are the institutions of higher education that organise and implement at least three different studies from at least three different scientific fields. Their mission is to provide professional education to students, with the emphasis on practical application and they commonly include practical work.
The grading system in the Republic of Croatia consists of five grades: 5 – excellent, 4 – very good, 3 – good, 2 – sufficient, 1 – insufficient. The minimum positive grade is 2 – sufficient.
All children between the ages 5 and 16 in England, Scotland and Wales, and 4 and 16 in Norther Ireland, must, by law, receive full- time education About 93% receive free education financed from public funds (state schools), and 7% attend independent schools financed by fees paid by parents
Private-owned schools which charge tuition (which can be very high) Larger and more famous private fee-paying boarding schools (such as Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Roedan) are also called public schools – they were originally founded by benefactors for families who valued education, but could not afford private tutors
There are four stages: 1. Primary 2. Secondary 3. Sixth Form 4. University
Age 5 – 11 Primary education starts with infant school (5-7) This is followed by junior (or first) school (7- 11)
Age 11- 16 Schools are mainly comprehensive (non- selective); a few grammar schools still exist Comprehensive schools are divided into six forms; pre-programme Ends with GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education
English Language Other modern languages including student’s native language Maths Sciences (either combined or separate Biology, Chemistry and Physics) and ICT Humanities (History, Geography, Law, Psychology, Sociology etc) Arts (Music, Drama, Art & Design)
The National Curriculum in England and Wales consists of statutory subjects for 5- to 16-year-olds All state schools must provide religious education, and all state secondary schools must provide sex education
◦ English ◦ Mathematics ◦ Science ◦ Art & design ◦ Citizenship ◦ Design & Technology ◦ Geography ◦ History ◦ Information & Communication Technology (ICT) ◦ Modern Foreign Languages ◦ Music ◦ Physical Education
GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education; taken at the age of 16 O-levels UK students usually begin a 2-year GCSE programme at age 14, with exams that test knowledge and skills
After completing a Pre-Programme (for international students) or GCSEs, students can choose from four courses: A-level (2 years or 1 year fast-track) International Baccalaureate (2 years only) University Foundation (1 year fast-track) Cambridge Pre-U (2 years only) On completion of their Sixth Form studies, most students can progress straight to University
About 70% of 16-year-old pupils continue in full- time education, studying for examinations which lead to higher education, professional training or vocational qualifications GNVQ – the General National Vocational Qualification (today replaced by BTEC – Business and Technology Education Council - exams) A levels – the academic General Certificate of Education Advanced level examination
State-run universities (over 100) Polytechnics Colleges of higher education (1 or 2 year non-degree courses) Private universities
Approximately one-third of UK sixth form students progress to higher education. This means that competition for the top universities is very fierce, and a good education at sixth form is essential for ambitious students.
The most prestigious, the oldest and most traditional universities Special entrance exams Half the students come from private schools
Preschool education: nursery school or kindergarten; not obligatory, but kindergartens are often part of the public school system Americans start school at the age of 6 (first grade) Every year they go up a grade until they leave school at the age of 18, from twelfth grade Schoolchildren are called students
Elementary (grade school) – 1st to 6th grade Secondary school ◦ Junior high – 7th to 8th grade ◦ Senior high – 9th to 12th grade Higher education
Public schools – state schools, free of charge (even for foreigners); important in the life of the local community; social centres Private schools – parents required to pay fees (tuition); organization and curricula similar to public schools, but the administration differs; frequently associated with religious institutions
Education regulated at federal, state and local levels This results in certain differences in the organisation of schools (advanced classes, choice of sports, activities and vocational training) Grades (classes) regulated at the federal level High school curriculum is regulated at the state level, so it differs from state to state
Promotion from one grade to the next is based on the pupil’s achievement of specified skills in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, history, geography and art
Compulsory (prescribed) subjects: English, science, social studies, mathematics, physical education Elective subjects chosen in many fields (foreign languages, arts, vocational training, science...) In senior high school half of the student workload is elective
Pep rally Homecoming Prom Yearbook launch Graduation (ceremonies, caps and gowns, diplomas, speeches, farewell speech by valedictorian)
Colleges and universities associate degree ◦ Colleges (community and junior) – associate degree Junior college – the first two years of an undergraduate curriculum or final vocational training Community college – largely attended by students who want to live at home
Colleges of liberal arts ◦ Humanities, social studies Professional colleges ◦ Engineering, education, business...
bachelor’s degreemaster’s degree PhDadvanced professional degree Universities – bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, PhD or advanced professional degree (Law, Medicine, Dentistry) Undergradute and graduate departments State universities and private universities The best universities are private (Yale, Princeton, Harvard)
A system of credits (units) which are transferable Students must select a major (the main subject of study) in order to earn a Bachelor’s degree Students are required to take a certain number of courses within that major in order to receive the degree
The Greek system (sororities and fraternities) Life on campus