8Classification: All hazards to be CLASSIFIED not Evaluated: Identify the relevant data regarding the hazards of a chemical;Review those data to ascertain the hazards associated with the chemicalDetermine whether the chemical will be classified as hazardous according to the definition of hazardous chemical in this section. In addition,Classification for health and physical hazards includes the determination of the degree of hazard,"Hazard class" means the nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.
28Pictogram: Health Hazard CarcinogenMutagenicityReproductive ToxicityRespiratory SensitizerTarget Organ ToxicityAspiration Toxicity
29Pictogram: Flame Flammables Pyrophoric Self-Heating Emits Flammable GasSelf-ReactivesOrganic PeroxidesPyrophoric chemicals are liquids and solids that will ignite spontaneously in air at about 130 degrees F.Titanium dichloride and phosphorus are example of pyrophoric solids; tributylaluminum and related compounds are examples of pyrophoric liquids.From Wikipedia on organic peroxides:In polymer chemistryOrganic peroxides find numerous applications, often involving similar chemistry. Thus, peroxides serve as accelerators, activators, cross-linking agents, curing and vulcanization agents, hardeners, polymerisation initiators, and promoters. Drying oils, as found in many paints and varnishes function via the formation of hydroperoxides.Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoyl peroxide and to a smaller degree acetone peroxide are used as initiators for radical polymerization of some resins, e.g. polyester and silicone, often encountered when making fiberglass.
30Pictogram: Exclamation Mark Irritant (skin and eye)Skin SensitizerAcute ToxicityNarcotic EffectsRespiratory Tract IrritantHazardous to Ozone Layer (Non-Mandatory)Exclamation mark is for the weaker end.Irritant (Skin Irritation Category2 and Eye Irritation Category2A),Dermal Sensitizer (Category1),Acute Toxicity (Category 4,harmful),Target Organ Toxicity/STOT Category 3 = narcoticeffects, respiratory irritation
32Pictogram: Corrosion Skin Corrosion/Burns Eye Damage Corrosive to MetalsAcids have better warning properties than bases. Acids will burn quickly, the victim will seek water, FAST.Caustics, poor warning properties: slippery feeling, break down proteins in the skin.
33Pictogram: Exploding Bomb ExplosivesSelf-ReactivesOrganic PeroxidesSelf-reactive SubstancesWhat are unstable chemicals?Unstable or self-reactive substances are chemicals which have the potential to vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, temperature, light, or contact with another material. Major types of highly reactive chemicals are explosives, peroxides, water-reactives, and pyrophorics.What should I do when handling unstable chemicals?• Always wear safety goggles, closed toe shoes, and gloves• Handle under a hood if the reaction has the potential of creating gases• If there is a chance of explosion, use barriers or other forms of isolation methods• For some heat sensitive materials, temperature should be controlled.• Date all containers when received or opened
34Pictogram: Flame over Circle OxidizersNo ignition source (flame is necessary)Used as rocket fuel in spaceBread with drops of peroxide + leather = hot flameMixing concentrated hydrogen peroxide with an organic material, in the presence of a catalyst will react on its own, causing a very hot flame.Class 1 An oxidizing material whose primary hazard is that it may increase the burning rate of combustible material with which it comes in contact.Class Rating Hazard DescriptionClass 2 An oxidizing material that will moderately increase the burning rate or which may cause spontaneous ignition of combustible material with which it comes in contact.undergo vigorous self-sustained decomposition when catalyzed or exposed to heat.Class 3 An oxidizing material that will cause a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible material with which it comes in contact or which willClass 4 An oxidizing material that can undergo an explosive reaction when catalyzed or exposed to heat, shock or friction.(as Classified by the NFPA)TABLE 3 - Oxidizing MaterialsClass 1Class Rating Examplesammonium persulfatepotassium dichromatealuminum nitratepotassium persulfatebarium chloratepotassium nitratebarium nitratesodium carbonate peroxidebarium peroxidesilver nitratesodium dichloro-s-triazinetrionecalcium chloratecalcium peroxidesodium dichromatecalcium nitratecupric nitratesodium nitratesodium perboratehydrogen peroxide (8-27.5%)sodium nitritesodium perborate tetrahydratelead nitratelithium peroxidesodium perchlorate monohydratelithium hypochloritesodium persulfatemagnesium perchloratestrontium chloratemagnesium nitratemagnesium peroxidestrontium nitratezinc chloratenickel nitratestrontium peroxideperchloric acid (<60% concen.)zinc peroxidenitric acid (<70% conc.)potassium permanganateClass 2 calcium hypochlorite (<50% wgt)chromium trioxide (chromic acid)sodium chlorite (<40% wgt.)hydrogen peroxide ( % conc.)sodium peroxidehalanetrichloro-s-triazinetrionenitric acid (>70% conc.)sodium permanganatepotassium chlorateClass 3 ammonium dichromatehydrogen peroxide (52-91% conc.)potassium dichloroisocyanurateperchloric acid ( % conc.)sodium chloratecalcium hypochlorite (>50% wgt.)potassium bromatesodium chlorite (>40% wgt.)guanidine nitrateammonium permanganateClass 4 ammonium perchlorateperchloric acid (>72.5%)hydrogen peroxide (>91% conc.)potassium superoxide
35Pictogram: Environmental Aquatic Toxicity(Non-Mandatory)Straightforward. Dead fish, dead tree.
36Pictogram: Skull and Crossbones Acute Toxicity (fatal or toxic)
40Safety Data Sheets (SDS) Prepared by the chemical manufacturer or importer and describes:Physical hazards, such as fire and explosionHealth hazards, such as signs of exposureRoutes of exposurePrecautions for safe handling and useEmergency and first-aid proceduresControl measuresMust be readily accessible to employees in their work area(g)Chemical manufacturers and importers must develop an MSDS for each hazardous chemical they produce or import, and must provide the MSDS at the time of the initial shipment to a downstream distributor or user. Distributors also must ensure that downstream employers are similarly provided an MSDS.The MSDSs must be updated by the chemical manufacturer or importer within three months of learning of "new or significant information" regarding the chemical's hazard potential.OSHA does not require that MSDSs be provided to purchasers of household consumer products (such as "windex" and "white‑out“) when the products are used in the workplace in the same manner that a consumer would use them, i.e.; where the duration and frequency of use (and therefore exposure) is not greater than what the typical consumer would experience. Employees who are required to work with hazardous chemicals in a greater duration and frequency of exposure than a normal consumer have a right to know about the properties of those hazardous chemicals.
42The Standardized SDS Format 1910.1200 (g) (2) (i-xvi) 16 Sections – Standardized format:IdentificationHazard(s) identificationComposition/information on ingredientsFirst-aid measuresFire-fighting measuresAccidental release measuresHandling and storageExposure control/personal protection
43The Standardized SDS Format 1910.1200 (g) (2) (i-xvi) Format: 16 Sections (cont.):Physical and chemical propertiesStability and reactivityToxicological informationEcological informationDisposal informationTransport informationRegulatory informationOther information