3General Safety-Fall Protection In subpart M of section 1926, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) outlines fall protection.It states that, “Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.”Guardrail SystemSafety Net SystemPersonal Fall Arrest System
4General Safety-Confined Spaces OSHA’s definition of a confined space is a space large enough for an employee to enter and perform work in, but has limited entrances/exits and is not designed for continuous occupation by employees
5Confined Spaces Regulations Permits are required for workers to work in confined spacesThe space must be designated with a Warning or Danger-Confined Space signProper ventilation is requiredMore regulations for confined spaces are outlined in OSHA’s
6Electricity - The Dangers About 5 workers are electrocuted every weekCauses 12% of young worker workplace deathsTakes very little electricity to cause harmSignificant risk of causing firesOSHA Office of Training & Education
7OSHA Office of Training & Education Electrical InjuriesThere are four main types of electrical injuries:Direct:Electrocution or death due to electrical shockElectrical shockBurnsIndirectFallsOSHA Office of Training & Education
8OSHA Office of Training & Education Electrical ShockAn electrical shock is received when electrical current passes through the body.One will get an electrical shock if a part of the body completes an electrical circuit by…Coming in contact with both wires of a circuitComing in contact with one hot wire and the groundComing in contact with an energized part while in contact with the groundOSHA Office of Training & Education
9OSHA Office of Training & Education Severity of ShockSeverity of the shock depends on:Path of current through the bodyAmount of current flowing through the body (amps)Duration of the shocking current through the bodyLOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARDLow voltage is defined as 600 volts or less while High Voltage is anything more than 600 voltsOSHA Office of Training & Education
10Electrical Shock Deaths There are around 700 deaths each year in the United States that are related to electricityThe main cause of death from electrical shock is fibrillationThis is very rapid, irregular contractions of muscle fibers of the heartDefibrillator being used.
11OSHA Office of Training & Education BurnsMost common shock-related injuryOccurs when you touch electrical wiring or equipment that is improperly used or maintainedTypically occurs on handsVery serious injury that needs immediate attentionOSHA Office of Training & Education
12Arc Blast between 2 nails Electrical BurnsAll electrical burns are caused by heat generated by the flow of electricityArc blasts are caused by vaporizing metalIf objects are thrown during an arc blast, it causes thermal contact burnsArc Blast between 2 nails
14Electrical Hazards and How to Control Them Electrical accidents are caused by a combination of three factors:Unsafe equipment and/or installation,Workplaces made unsafe by the environment, andUnsafe work practices.OSHA Office of Training & Education
15Hazard – Exposed Electrical Parts Cover removed from wiring or breaker boxOSHA Office of Training & Education
16Control – Isolate Electrical Parts * Use guards or barriers- Section 2 requireslive parts be guardedwhen they areexposed for servicingor repair* Replace coversGuard live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more against accidental contactOSHA Office of Training & Education
17Control – Isolate Electrical Parts - Cabinets, Boxes & Fittings Conductors going into them must be protected, and unused openings must be closedOSHA Office of Training & Education
18Control – Close Openings Junction boxes, pull boxes and fittings must have approved coversUnused openings in cabinets, boxes and fittings must be closed (no missing knockouts)Photo shows violationsof these two requirementsOSHA Office of Training & Education
19Control - Overhead Power Lines Hazard - Overhead Power Lines Usually not insulated* Examples of equipment that can contact power lines:CraneLadderScaffoldBackhoeScissors liftRaised dump truck bedAluminum paint rollerStay at least 10 feet awayPost warning signsAssume that lines are energizedUse wood or fiberglass ladders, not metalPower line workers need special training & PPEOSHA Office of Training & Education
20Hazard - Inadequate Wiring Wire GaugeWIREHazard - wire too small for the currentExample - portable tool with an extension cord that has a wire too small for the toolThe tool will draw more current than the cord can handle, causing overheating and a possible fire without tripping the circuit breakerThe circuit breaker could be the right size for the circuit but not for the smaller-wire extension cordWire gauge measures wires ranging in size from number 36 to 0 American wire gauge (AWG).OSHA Office of Training & Education
21Must be 3-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard use Control – Use the Correct WireMust be 3-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard useWire used depends on operation, building materials, electrical load, and environmental factorsUse fixed cords rather than flexible cordsUse the correct extension cordOSHA Office of Training & Education
22Hazard – Defective Cords & Wires * Cords can be damaged by:- Aging- Door or window edges- Staples or fastenings- Abrasion from adjacent materials- Activity in the area* Improper use can cause shocks, burns or fire* Plastic or rubber covering is missing* Damaged extension cords & toolsOSHA Office of Training & Education
23OSHA Office of Training & Education Control – Cords & Wires* Insulate live wires* Check before use* Use only cords that are 3-wire type* Use only cords marked for hard orextra-hard usage* Use only cords, connectiondevices, and fittings equipped withstrain relief* Remove cords by pulling on theplugs, not the cords* Cords not marked for hard or extra-hard use, or which have beenmodified, must be taken out ofservice immediatelyOSHA Office of Training & Education
24Personal Safety Precautions Always know the voltage rating of the equipment you are working with.If equipment is in the volt rang, stay at least a foot away from the energized equipment.OSHA Office of Training & Education
25Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Includes:GlovesEye ProtectionInsulating BlanketsCertain Types of Clothing
26OSHA Office of Training & Education Eye ProtectionOSHA Office of Training & Education
27When Must Eye Protection be Provided? *According to article CFR section 1, it is required to “wear protective equipment for the eyes or face wherever there is danger of injury to the eyes or face from electric arcs or flashes or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion.”* Especially when any of these hazards are present:Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or sawdustCorrosive gases, vapors, and liquidsMolten metal that may splashPotentially infectious materials such as blood or hazardous liquid chemicals that may splashIntense light from welding and lasers
28Working Near Exposed Live Parts When working near exposed live parts, OSHA requirements state: “Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials shall be used to protect each employee from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while that employee is working near exposed energized parts which might be accidentally contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, they shall be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the live parts.”
29Rubber Gloves and Insulating Blankets Rubber Gloves and blankets should be matched to the voltage rating of the equipment or electrical circuit.Class Zero rubber protective equipment is acceptable for low voltage work.Any damage at all reduces the insulating ability.Type 1 rubber protective equipment can be damaged by corona cutting and ultraviolet rays.
30GlovesWearing leather protectors over rubber gloves prevents cuts/punctures.Clean gloves with warm water. After they have been tested, store in a cool, dry, dark place.
31Testing Gloves Inspect gloves before each use. An air test is completed by trapping air in a glove to check for leaks.Do NOT use compressed air, it could damage the glove.
32What Should You Do…If there is ANY damage at all or the protective equipment doesn’t pass inspection, the equipment should be DISCARDED!
33The Award for Best Clothing Goes To… COTTON!Why? Because Cotton is less likely to burn. Also, it is best for non-static clothes.
34Protective ApparelOther types of protective apparel include: rubber sleeves, fire suits and face shields.
35Face Shields Face Shields should be worn during switching operations. Face shields do not protect from impact so safety glasses or goggles must also be worn
36Part 3: Specialty Tools and System De-Energizing
37Insulating BlanketsInsulating blankets are used to protect workers from accidental contact with a power-source.They are only used to cover equipment.
38Hot SticksHot Sticks are an insulated tool used for manually disconnecting switches.When storing hot sticks, they should hang vertically.
39Fuse Pullers Fuse pullers make it easier to install or remove fuses They should be made of non-conductive materialSpread guards can be used with fuse pullers to prevent them from spreading during use
40CapacitorsCapacitors are components that store electricity even when power is turned off.When working with equipment that has a capacitor, discharge the capacitor to protect yourself
41Shorting Probe Shorting probes are used to discharge capacitors While working, shorting probes should remain attached as an extra safety precaution.
42Working Around Energized Circuits To ensure safety, OSHA and NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) both have requirements for wearing safety glasses when around energized circuits.NFPA 70-E requires that eye and face protection are worn whenever there is a danger of injury from electric arcs, flash, or explosion.
43How Do I Verify a Circuit is De-Energized? ALWAYS1. Ensure lockout tag-out 2. Verify test equipment 3. Check the circuit with test group 4. Verify test equipment again
44Jewelry ReminderNever wear jewelry when working around electricity because it is a good conductor of electricity!
45Always be AlertIt is critical that you stay alert about what is going on around you because safety situations are constantly changing.
47What is OSHA?OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health AdministrationAccording to OSHA, employees have a duty to follow the safety rules and regulations of their employerIt is important to follow safety rules and regulations not only to be free of accidents, but also because if you don’t it could reduce your benefits or cost you your job.
481910 vs. 1926OSHA has two sets of regulations dealing with the construction industry: 1910 and 1926The standards set forth in 1926 take precedence over 1910 unless more stringent standards exist in 1910.
49Important OSHA Standards Section through contain design safety regulations for all electrical equipment and installations used to provide workplace power and lightingSection 402 only applies to the scope of the standardSection 403 covers equipment installation clearances, identification and examination
50OSHA Standards (cont.)Section 404 discusses grounded, outside and service conductors, grounding requirements, and over-current protectionSection 405 addresses wiring methods, components and equipment for general useSection 406 covers special purpose equipment and installations
51More OSHA StandardsSection 407 covers hazardous locations that contain (a) flammable gases or materials (b) there is a combustible concentration presentSection 408 covers special systems not covered in other articlesSection is special because it provides an overview
52Even More OSHA Standards applies to training requirements for employees who face the risk of electrical shockSection covers safety practices necessary to prevent electric shock and related injuriesSection 431 was added to reinforce regulations covering portable electrical equipment, electrical test equipment and load break switches
53The List Goes On…Section 416 covers Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) requirements for persons in vicinity of electrical hazardsSection 1926 Subpart K addresses safety requirements necessary for electrical safety in the construction industry
54The Standards Say…If you work on electrical equipment, the work should be done with circuits de-energized and cleared/groundedAll conductors, buses, and connections should be considered energized (or hot) until proven otherwiseBreakers must be locked out and taggedBefore replacing a fuse, remove power from the circuit.
56Electrical Codes All electrical work shall be in compliance with: OSHANational Electrical Code (NEC)
57Power Tools Grounded tools must have 3rd grounding wire Double insulated tools have all electrical components isolated from the operator and require no external grounding
58Extension CordsOnly 3 wire extension cords are allowed for use on construction sitesNever run an extension cord through a doorway or windowGround Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) must be used if you’re using an extension cord with a permanent receptacleFlexible cords must be continuous. This means there can be no splices
59Basics of Lockouts and Tag-Outs The purpose of the OSHA lockout/tag-out rule is to ensure equipment is isolated from all potentially hazardous energy and tagged before any servicing or workThe lockout/tag-out procedure does not apply to troubleshooting procedures when the equipment must be on to perform the procedures
60The Basics Continued You must notify all affected employees An affected employee is anyone working on or near equipment that has been locked/tagged-outTraining is to include recognition of hazardous energy sources, types and magnitude of energy sources, and the procedure for energy isolation and controlDanger tags must be used in conjunction with locks
61Lockout/Tag-Out Steps Notify all affected and authorized personnelShut down the equipment or systemLockout the energy source and test disconnects to be sure they can’t be turned onLockout and tag-out the required switchingAttach equipment or system to the ground6. Verify the test equipment is functioning properly 7. Confirm all switches are open and verify the equipment/system is de-energized using proper test equipment 8. Retest equipment or system if you have to leave even for a short period
62Reminders Avoid wearing loose fitting or torn clothing Before beginning any work, you should test the voltageYou should ALWAYS use appropriate test equipment to check for powerYou must also notify all affected employees that the lockout/tag-out has ended and power is being restored