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Safety Concepts and Practices

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Presentation on theme: "Safety Concepts and Practices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safety Concepts and Practices
By: Laura Glantzberg Georgia CTAE Resource Network Some slides courtesy of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (

2 Part 1: General Safety

3 General Safety-Fall Protection
In subpart M of section 1926, OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) outlines fall protection. It states that, “Each employee on a walking/working surface (horizontal and vertical surface) with an unprotected side or edge which is 6 feet or more above a lower level shall be protected from falling by the use of guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.” Guardrail System Safety Net System Personal Fall Arrest System

4 General Safety-Confined Spaces
OSHA’s definition of a confined space is a space large enough for an employee to enter and perform work in, but has limited entrances/exits and is not designed for continuous occupation by employees

5 Confined Spaces Regulations
Permits are required for workers to work in confined spaces The space must be designated with a Warning or Danger-Confined Space sign Proper ventilation is required More regulations for confined spaces are outlined in OSHA’s

6 Electricity - The Dangers
About 5 workers are electrocuted every week Causes 12% of young worker workplace deaths Takes very little electricity to cause harm Significant risk of causing fires OSHA Office of Training & Education

7 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Electrical Injuries There are four main types of electrical injuries: Direct: Electrocution or death due to electrical shock Electrical shock Burns Indirect Falls OSHA Office of Training & Education

8 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Electrical Shock An electrical shock is received when electrical current passes through the body. One will get an electrical shock if a part of the body completes an electrical circuit by… Coming in contact with both wires of a circuit Coming in contact with one hot wire and the ground Coming in contact with an energized part while in contact with the ground OSHA Office of Training & Education

9 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Severity of Shock Severity of the shock depends on: Path of current through the body Amount of current flowing through the body (amps) Duration of the shocking current through the body LOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARD Low voltage is defined as 600 volts or less while High Voltage is anything more than 600 volts OSHA Office of Training & Education

10 Electrical Shock Deaths
There are around 700 deaths each year in the United States that are related to electricity The main cause of death from electrical shock is fibrillation This is very rapid, irregular contractions of muscle fibers of the heart Defibrillator being used.

11 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Burns Most common shock-related injury Occurs when you touch electrical wiring or equipment that is improperly used or maintained Typically occurs on hands Very serious injury that needs immediate attention OSHA Office of Training & Education

12 Arc Blast between 2 nails
Electrical Burns All electrical burns are caused by heat generated by the flow of electricity Arc blasts are caused by vaporizing metal If objects are thrown during an arc blast, it causes thermal contact burns Arc Blast between 2 nails

13 Part 2: Limiting Exposure to Shock

14 Electrical Hazards and How to Control Them
Electrical accidents are caused by a combination of three factors: Unsafe equipment and/or installation, Workplaces made unsafe by the environment, and Unsafe work practices. OSHA Office of Training & Education

15 Hazard – Exposed Electrical Parts
Cover removed from wiring or breaker box OSHA Office of Training & Education

16 Control – Isolate Electrical Parts
* Use guards or barriers - Section 2 requires live parts be guarded when they are exposed for servicing or repair * Replace covers Guard live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more against accidental contact OSHA Office of Training & Education

17 Control – Isolate Electrical Parts - Cabinets, Boxes & Fittings
Conductors going into them must be protected, and unused openings must be closed OSHA Office of Training & Education

18 Control – Close Openings
Junction boxes, pull boxes and fittings must have approved covers Unused openings in cabinets, boxes and fittings must be closed (no missing knockouts) Photo shows violations of these two requirements OSHA Office of Training & Education

19 Control - Overhead Power Lines Hazard - Overhead Power Lines
Usually not insulated * Examples of equipment that can contact power lines: Crane Ladder Scaffold Backhoe Scissors lift Raised dump truck bed Aluminum paint roller Stay at least 10 feet away Post warning signs Assume that lines are energized Use wood or fiberglass ladders, not metal Power line workers need special training & PPE OSHA Office of Training & Education

20 Hazard - Inadequate Wiring
Wire Gauge WIRE Hazard - wire too small for the current Example - portable tool with an extension cord that has a wire too small for the tool The tool will draw more current than the cord can handle, causing overheating and a possible fire without tripping the circuit breaker The circuit breaker could be the right size for the circuit but not for the smaller-wire extension cord Wire gauge measures wires ranging in size from number 36 to 0 American wire gauge (AWG). OSHA Office of Training & Education

21 Must be 3-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard use
Control – Use the Correct Wire Must be 3-wire type and designed for hard or extra-hard use Wire used depends on operation, building materials, electrical load, and environmental factors Use fixed cords rather than flexible cords Use the correct extension cord OSHA Office of Training & Education

22 Hazard – Defective Cords & Wires
* Cords can be damaged by: - Aging - Door or window edges - Staples or fastenings - Abrasion from adjacent materials - Activity in the area * Improper use can cause shocks, burns or fire * Plastic or rubber covering is missing * Damaged extension cords & tools OSHA Office of Training & Education

23 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Control – Cords & Wires * Insulate live wires * Check before use * Use only cords that are 3-wire type * Use only cords marked for hard or extra-hard usage * Use only cords, connection devices, and fittings equipped with strain relief * Remove cords by pulling on the plugs, not the cords * Cords not marked for hard or extra- hard use, or which have been modified, must be taken out of service immediately OSHA Office of Training & Education

24 Personal Safety Precautions
Always know the voltage rating of the equipment you are working with. If equipment is in the volt rang, stay at least a foot away from the energized equipment. OSHA Office of Training & Education

25 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Includes: Gloves Eye Protection Insulating Blankets Certain Types of Clothing

26 OSHA Office of Training & Education
Eye Protection OSHA Office of Training & Education

27 When Must Eye Protection be Provided?
*According to article CFR section 1, it is required to “wear protective equipment for the eyes or face wherever there is danger of injury to the eyes or face from electric arcs or flashes or from flying objects resulting from electrical explosion.” * Especially when any of these hazards are present: Dust and other flying particles, such as metal shavings or sawdust Corrosive gases, vapors, and liquids Molten metal that may splash Potentially infectious materials such as blood or hazardous liquid chemicals that may splash Intense light from welding and lasers

28 Working Near Exposed Live Parts
When working near exposed live parts, OSHA requirements state: “Protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials shall be used to protect each employee from shock, burns, or other electrically related injuries while that employee is working near exposed energized parts which might be accidentally contacted or where dangerous electric heating or arcing might occur. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for maintenance or repair, they shall be guarded to protect unqualified persons from contact with the live parts.”

29 Rubber Gloves and Insulating Blankets
Rubber Gloves and blankets should be matched to the voltage rating of the equipment or electrical circuit. Class Zero rubber protective equipment is acceptable for low voltage work. Any damage at all reduces the insulating ability. Type 1 rubber protective equipment can be damaged by corona cutting and ultraviolet rays.

30 Gloves Wearing leather protectors over rubber gloves prevents cuts/punctures. Clean gloves with warm water. After they have been tested, store in a cool, dry, dark place.

31 Testing Gloves Inspect gloves before each use.
An air test is completed by trapping air in a glove to check for leaks. Do NOT use compressed air, it could damage the glove.

32 What Should You Do… If there is ANY damage at all or the protective equipment doesn’t pass inspection, the equipment should be DISCARDED!

33 The Award for Best Clothing Goes To…
COTTON! Why? Because Cotton is less likely to burn. Also, it is best for non-static clothes.

34 Protective Apparel Other types of protective apparel include: rubber sleeves, fire suits and face shields.

35 Face Shields Face Shields should be worn during switching operations.
Face shields do not protect from impact so safety glasses or goggles must also be worn

36 Part 3: Specialty Tools and System De-Energizing

37 Insulating Blankets Insulating blankets are used to protect workers from accidental contact with a power-source. They are only used to cover equipment.

38 Hot Sticks Hot Sticks are an insulated tool used for manually disconnecting switches. When storing hot sticks, they should hang vertically.

39 Fuse Pullers Fuse pullers make it easier to install or remove fuses
They should be made of non-conductive material Spread guards can be used with fuse pullers to prevent them from spreading during use

40 Capacitors Capacitors are components that store electricity even when power is turned off. When working with equipment that has a capacitor, discharge the capacitor to protect yourself

41 Shorting Probe Shorting probes are used to discharge capacitors
While working, shorting probes should remain attached as an extra safety precaution.

42 Working Around Energized Circuits
To ensure safety, OSHA and NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) both have requirements for wearing safety glasses when around energized circuits. NFPA 70-E requires that eye and face protection are worn whenever there is a danger of injury from electric arcs, flash, or explosion.

43 How Do I Verify a Circuit is De-Energized?
ALWAYS 1. Ensure lockout tag-out 2. Verify test equipment 3. Check the circuit with test group 4. Verify test equipment again

44 Jewelry Reminder Never wear jewelry when working around electricity because it is a good conductor of electricity!

45 Always be Alert It is critical that you stay alert about what is going on around you because safety situations are constantly changing.

46 Part 4: OSHA and Electricity

47 What is OSHA? OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration According to OSHA, employees have a duty to follow the safety rules and regulations of their employer It is important to follow safety rules and regulations not only to be free of accidents, but also because if you don’t it could reduce your benefits or cost you your job.

48 1910 vs. 1926 OSHA has two sets of regulations dealing with the construction industry: 1910 and 1926 The standards set forth in 1926 take precedence over 1910 unless more stringent standards exist in 1910.

49 Important OSHA Standards
Section through contain design safety regulations for all electrical equipment and installations used to provide workplace power and lighting Section 402 only applies to the scope of the standard Section 403 covers equipment installation clearances, identification and examination

50 OSHA Standards (cont.) Section 404 discusses grounded, outside and service conductors, grounding requirements, and over-current protection Section 405 addresses wiring methods, components and equipment for general use Section 406 covers special purpose equipment and installations

51 More OSHA Standards Section 407 covers hazardous locations that contain (a) flammable gases or materials (b) there is a combustible concentration present Section 408 covers special systems not covered in other articles Section is special because it provides an overview

52 Even More OSHA Standards
applies to training requirements for employees who face the risk of electrical shock Section covers safety practices necessary to prevent electric shock and related injuries Section 431 was added to reinforce regulations covering portable electrical equipment, electrical test equipment and load break switches

53 The List Goes On… Section 416 covers Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) requirements for persons in vicinity of electrical hazards Section 1926 Subpart K addresses safety requirements necessary for electrical safety in the construction industry

54 The Standards Say… If you work on electrical equipment, the work should be done with circuits de-energized and cleared/grounded All conductors, buses, and connections should be considered energized (or hot) until proven otherwise Breakers must be locked out and tagged Before replacing a fuse, remove power from the circuit.

55 Part 5: Assured Grounding and Lockout/Tag-Out

56 Electrical Codes All electrical work shall be in compliance with:
OSHA National Electrical Code (NEC)

57 Power Tools Grounded tools must have 3rd grounding wire
Double insulated tools have all electrical components isolated from the operator and require no external grounding

58 Extension Cords Only 3 wire extension cords are allowed for use on construction sites Never run an extension cord through a doorway or window Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) must be used if you’re using an extension cord with a permanent receptacle Flexible cords must be continuous. This means there can be no splices

59 Basics of Lockouts and Tag-Outs
The purpose of the OSHA lockout/tag-out rule is to ensure equipment is isolated from all potentially hazardous energy and tagged before any servicing or work The lockout/tag-out procedure does not apply to troubleshooting procedures when the equipment must be on to perform the procedures

60 The Basics Continued You must notify all affected employees
An affected employee is anyone working on or near equipment that has been locked/tagged-out Training is to include recognition of hazardous energy sources, types and magnitude of energy sources, and the procedure for energy isolation and control Danger tags must be used in conjunction with locks

61 Lockout/Tag-Out Steps
Notify all affected and authorized personnel Shut down the equipment or system Lockout the energy source and test disconnects to be sure they can’t be turned on Lockout and tag-out the required switching Attach equipment or system to the ground 6. Verify the test equipment is functioning properly 7. Confirm all switches are open and verify the equipment/system is de-energized using proper test equipment 8. Retest equipment or system if you have to leave even for a short period

62 Reminders Avoid wearing loose fitting or torn clothing
Before beginning any work, you should test the voltage You should ALWAYS use appropriate test equipment to check for power You must also notify all affected employees that the lockout/tag-out has ended and power is being restored

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