4IntroductionWelding is the most common method of joining metals in industry today.When welded, two pieces of similar metals are fused (melted) together.Once completed, the welded joint is as strong or stronger than the pieces from which the joint is formed.
5General Hazards General Hazards of welding include: Electrical Hazards Harmful FumesHeat and Light RadiationFire and Explosions
6Welding Health Hazards Chemical Agents:ZINC: Inhalation to zinc oxide fumes can occur when welding or cutting on Zinc-coated metals.Causes metal fume fever. Symptoms are very similar to those common influenza.Fever, nausea, dryness of the throat, coughRarely last beyond 24 hours.
7CadmiumIt is used frequently as a rust-preventive coating on steel and as alloying element.Acute exposures to high concentrations of cadmium fumes can produce sever lung irritation, pulmonary edema, and in some cases, death.Long-term exposure to low levels of cadmium in air can result in emphysema (a disease affecting the ability of the lung to absorb oxygen and can damage the kedneys.
8Beryllium As an alloying element with copper and other base metals. Acute exposure to high concentrations of beryllium can result in chemical pneumonia.Long-term exposure can result in shortness of breath, chronic cough, and significant weigh loss.
9Fluorides Coatings of several fluxes used in welding. Irritate the eyes, nose and throat.Repeated exposure to high concentrations of fluorides in air over a long period may cause pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) and bone damges.
10PhosgeneIs formed by decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents by ultraviolet radiation.It reacts with moisture in the lungs to produce hydrogen chloride which in turn destroys lung tissue.For this reason any use of chlorinated solvents should be well away from welding operations or any operations in which ultraviolet radiation or intense heat is generated (200 feet)
112- Physical AgentsUltra Violet Radiation: severe burns, can damage the lens of the eye.Infrared Radiation: heat the skin surface and the tissues immediately below the surface.Intense Visible Light: Shading of the eye
12Types of WeldingGas WeldingArc WeldingOxygen and Arc Cutting
1329 CFR DefinitionsHot Work: work which may generate heat, flame, or sparks. (Welding, Cutting, Brazing, Grinding.Approved: means listed or approved by nationally recognized testing laboratory.Welder: mean any operator of electric or gas welding and cutting equipment.
1429 CFR 1910.252 General Requirements All the moveable fire hazards in the vicinity shall be taken to a safe distance (35 FT).If all the fire hazards cannot be removed, then guards shall be used to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards.Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be maintained.
16Welding curtain to contain sparks and slag away from other operations.
17ContinuedFire watchers are required, to detect all sparks, to extinguish any fires, sounding the alarms.A fire watch shall be maintained for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.
20ContinuedWhere combustible materials such as paper clippings, wood shavings, or textile fibers are on the floor. The floor shall be swept clean for a radius of 35 feet (10.7 m). Combustible floors shall be wet, or protected by fire-resistant shields.
21Welding or Cutting Containers No welding, cutting, or other hot works shall be performed on used drums, barrels, tanks, or other containers until they have been cleaned so thoroughly as to make absolutely certain that there are no flammable materials present.
22Protection of Personnel Fire resistant glovesFire resistant clothing protect from sparks and hot metal.Safety ShoesProtective eye wear with proper filter. (Welding Helmet)
28Filter Lens Shade Number Guide Welding OperationShade NumberShield Metal Arc Welding up to 4 mm electrode10Shield Metal Arc Welding (4.8 to 6.4 mm) electrodes12Shield Metal Arc Welding (6.4 mm) electrode14Gas Metal Arc Welding (Nonferrous)11Gas Metal Arc Welding (ferrous)Gas Tungsten Arc WeldingCarbon Arc Welding10 – 14Torch Soldering2Torch Brazing3 or 4Light cutting up to 25 mmMedium cutting 25 to 150 mm4 or 5Heavy cutting over 150 mm5 or 6Gas welding (light) up to 3.2Gas welding (medium) 3.2 to 12.7Gas welding (heavy) over 12.76 or 8
29Health Protection and Ventilation Mechanical ventilation is required when welding or cutting is done with materials (fluorine compounds, zinc, lead, cadmium, which are partially hazardous and have specific control requirements.Mechanical ventilation shall be provided:In space less than ft3 (284m3) per welder.In a room having a ceiling height of less than 16 feet (5m).
30ContinuedSuch ventilation shall be at the minimum rate of 2,000 cubic feet (57m3) per minute per welder.When welding must be performed in a space entirely screened on all sides, (No ventilation restriction – 2 feet above the floor).
3829 CFR 1910.253 Gas Welding and Cutting An oxyacetylene welding outfits is basically made up of: cylinders of oxygen and acetylene, regulators, hoses, and a torch.Oxygen and Acetylene are stored in separate cylinders in a high pressure, which is controlled by the regulators.Hoses carry the gases from the cylinders to the torch. The green hose carries Oxygen. The red Hose carries Acetylene.The gases are mixed inside the torch. When burned they produce a very hot flame. The flame is regulated by interchangeable torch tips and by the torch valves.
39The green hose (oxygen) has right hand threads The green hose (oxygen) has right hand threads. The red hose (acetylene) has left hand threads. The different colors & thread types prevent the accidental mixing of gases.
55General RequirementsUnder no condition shall acetylene be generated or utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psig.Using acetylene at a pressure in excess of 15 psig is a hazardous practice. Free gaseous acetylene is potentially unstable at pressure above 15 psig and could decompose with explosive violence.
56ContinuedThe decomposition characteristics of acetylene gas are avoided by keeping the gas in liquid solution and storing it in cylinders of unique construction. These cylinders contain porous calcium silicate filler (millions of microscopic pores) and a suitable solvent usually acetone. (has the ability to absorb over 400 times its own volume of acetylene at 70º F.
57Acetylene Cylinders are filled with Calcium Silicate Cut-away view of acetylene cylinder.
61ContinuedWhen absorbed in this filler, the acetylene is divided into such small units that, should acetylene decomposition take place in one pore, the heat released is not enough to raise the temperature of the acetylene in the surrounding pores.Acetylene is usually supplied in cylinders which have the capacity of up to 300 cubic feet of dissolved gas under pressure of 250 psig at 70º F.
62ContinuedCylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so that sparks hot slag, or flame will not reach them. When this is impractical shields shall be provided.Cylinders containing Oxygen or Acetylene or any fuel gas shall not be taken into confined spaces.Oxygen cylinders and fittings shall be kept away from oil or grease, and shall not be handled with oily hands or gloves.
63ContinuedCracking: Before a regulator valve is connected, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. To clear the valve of dust or dirt.The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it.Fuel gas cylinder valves shall be opened 1.5 turns and the wrench shall be left in position on the stem of the valve.
65Workplace free from combustible materials Flashback ArrestorRemove flammable materialsA burning torch must not be hung on the regulator or expose the cylinderCheck with a leak spray or soap solution that there is no leakageNever expose the acetylene cylinder to strong heatAdequate Ventilation
68Cylinders and Containers Compressed gas cylinders shall be legibly marked, for the purpose of identifying the gas content.(stenciling – stamping)Cylinders should be stored away from elevators, stairs, or gangways, or other areas where they might be knocked over or damaged by passing or falling objects.
71ContinuedWhere the cylinder is designed to accept a cap, shall always be in place, hand-tight, except when cylinders are in use or connected for use. The valve protection cap is designed to take the blow in case of cylinder falls.Acetylene cylinders shall be stored valve end up.
72Oxygen CylindersOxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible cylinders a minimum distance of 20 feet (6.1 m).
73Oxygen CylindersOr by a non-combustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.5m) high having a fire resistance rating of at least 1/2 hour.
7829 CFR 1910.254 Arc Welding and Cutting Most of the electric welder are typically AC/DC, 240 volt transformer types using electricity as the energy source.Arc welding uses the heat from an electric arc to melt and fuse base metals and welding-rod metal into one piece. The heat from the arc melts the flux coating on the rod.
87Arc ShieldingMetals at high temperatures tend to react chemically with elements in the air (oxygen – nitrogen) oxides and nitrides form which destroy the strength and toughness of the weld joint.Protective covering with protective shield of gas, vapor, or slag.
99Installing the Arc Welder The frame or case of welder shall be properly grounded.A safety type disconnecting switch shall be located near the machine.The welder shall be protected by properly sized fuse or circuit breaker on an independent circuit.
100ContinueA ground return cable shall have a safe current carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the specified output capacity of the arc welding or cutting unit which it services.Pipelines containing gases or flammable liquids or conduits containing electrical circuits, shall not be used as ground return.
101ContinueAll arc welding and cutting cables shall be of the completely insulated, flexible types, capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress.Only cable free from repair or splices for a minimum distance of 10 feet from the cable end to which the electrode holder is connected shall be used.
102Workers performing arc welding operations with proper PPE.
103Safety MeasuresSince the inert-gas metal-arc welding process involves the production of ultra-violet radiation on intensities of 5 to 30 times that produced during metal-arc welding, the following safety measures to be followed:The use of chlorinated solvents shall be kept at least 200 feet, unless shielded.Employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by proper filter lenses.Wet working conditions must be avoided because water is an excellent conductor and electricity will always follow the path of least resistance.
106Arc Rays and Eye Protection Arc rays produce intense visible and invisible (UV & IR) rays that can burn eyes and skin.Any exposed skin can be burned quickly by these rays. (Flame resistant clothing)Approved safety helmet with a proper filter shade should be used.Shields and barriers to protect others.Operators should never store matches or lighters in their pockets.
108Key Points to RememberBe sure the welder is properly installed and grounded.Never weld without adequate mechanical ventilation.Take proper precaution to prevent fires.Protect your entire body with fire retardant clothing, shoes, and gloves.Wear eye protection all times.Weld only in fire safe areas.Never do any welding, cutting, or hot work on used drums barrels, tanks, or other containers.Mark metal “HOT” with a soapstone.
11129 CFR 1910.255 Resistance Welding The weld is made by a combination of heat, pressure, and time.It is the resistance of the metal to be welded to current flow that causes localized heating in the part.The pressure is exerted by the tongs and tips.The time is how long current flows in the joint
11429 CFR 1910.255 Resistance Welding All doors and access panels of all resistance welding machines and control panels shall be kept locked and interlocked to prevent access, to live portions of the equipment.All press welding operations, shall be effectively guarded by use of a device such as an electronic eye safety circuit, two hands controls, ….
115ContinuedThe hazard of flying sparks shall be eliminated by installing a shield guard of safety glass or suitable fire-resistant plastic at the point of operation.Two or more safety emergency stop buttons shall be provided on all special multispot welding machines.Wear safety goggles or a face shield and heat resistance gloves.