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Steve Boyd, University of Warwick Neutrinos and the Case of the Missing Antimatter.

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Presentation on theme: "Steve Boyd, University of Warwick Neutrinos and the Case of the Missing Antimatter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steve Boyd, University of Warwick Neutrinos and the Case of the Missing Antimatter

2

3 Not this... Angels and Demons, 2009

4 Negative electric charge quark MatterAnti-Matter

5 Negative electric charge Positive electric charge quarkanti-quark MatterAnti-Matter

6 electron positron

7 There is a difference between the physics of matter and antimatter. It's name is CP Violation The LHC will study this by looking differences between particles called B 0 and B 0 mesons LHCb

8 But We might be looking in the wrong place.... The smallest, most insignificant (yet most common) particle in the cosmos may just hold the reason!

9 Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry n n n n n n n n n n n n A idea called “Leptogenesis” suggests that the asymmetry we see between matter and antimatter could have been generated by an asymmetry between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos at the beginning of things.

10 Electron Neutrino, n e 0 Very tiny mass (< ) Electron, e Tiny mass ( 1 ) So what is a neutrino? Neutrinos are the second most common particle in the universe. They are produced whenever something radioactively decays

11

12

13

14 x 500

15 Electron Neutrino, n e Electron, e mass ( 1 ) - Muon Neutrino, n m Muon, m mass ( 200 ) - Tau Neutrino, n t Tau, t mass ( 3500 ) -- 3 Lepton Flavours + anti-leptons

16 Electron Neutrino, n e Muon Neutrino, n m Tau Neutrino, n t 3 neutrino Flavours Electron Antineutrino, n e Muon Antineutrino, n m Tau Antineutrino, n m

17 The sun generates about 2x10 38 neutrinos/s as byproducts of the fusion processes that make the star shine.

18 So why don't we notice? n are almost ghosts. They interact extremely weakly with matter. To a neutrino a planet is mostly empty space.

19 500,000,000,000,000 neutrinos from the sun just went through each and every one of you

20 "The chances of a neutrino actually hitting something as it travels through all this howling emptiness are roughly comparable to that of dropping a ball bearing at random from a cruising 747 and hitting, say, an egg sandwich." Douglas Adams-Mostly Harmless

21 Probability 5 x nene

22

23 Probability 1 x

24 How do we use neutrinos to study CP violation?

25 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years l nlnl l nlnl A typical neutrino experiment

26 Distance Travelled Prob. It is n e 0 1 e nene m nmnm distance

27 295 km T2K Experiment

28 The Master Plan Measure oscillations of neutrinos Measure oscillations of anti-neutrinos Difference between these two numbers indicates a difference between the physics of neutrino and anti-neutrinos Can help show that leptogenesis works Experiment is starting now....

29 But we still don't know much about the neutrino itself! What is the mass of a neutrino? Why are they so much lighter than all the other massive particles? Are neutrinos the same as antineutrinos? Are neutrinos the reason we are here at all?

30 Economic Impacts 5% of jobs in UK are in physics-based sectors Gross added value from physics sector was estimated to be 70 billion pounds in 2005 Synergy between PP projects and industry – industry acquires added skills base for other applications Training - 50% of PP PhDs go into other sectors Radioisotope production Sensors for medical & other applications High level computing for biological/climate modelling Spin off tools for other science (e.g. DIAMOND) Nuclear fusion research Muon tomography in border security Airport scanners Rock Imaging Cancer treatment using next gen cyclotrons proton therapy

31 How do we exist? We don't know (yet) but we're working on it The smallest, most insignificant (yet most common) particle in the cosmos may just hold the reason!

32 JPARC Facility in Japan

33 Super-Kamiokande 42 m 1 km underground 50,000 tons of water

34 CRISIS

35 Energy(Ra) ≠ Energy(Ac)+Energy(e)

36 Wolfgang Pauli “Desperate remedy.....” “I do not dare publish this idea....” “I admit my way out may look improbable....” “Weigh it and pass sentence....” “You tell them. I'm off to a party”

37 Energy(Ra) = Energy(Ac)+Energy(e) + Energy(Neutrino)

38 What are neutrinos?

39 Very tiny mass (< ) e nene e nene Electron Neutrino, n e 0 Very tiny mass (< ) Electron, e Tiny mass ( 1 ) -

40 In experiments neutrinos are NEVER seen. We can only detect them through the byproducts of their interactions with matter. Type of the charged particle detected used to infer the type of incoming neutrino. e e

41 Electron Neutrino, n e Electron, e mass ( 1 ) - Muon Neutrino, n m Muon, m mass ( 200 ) - Tau Neutrino, n t Tau, t mass ( 3500 ) - 3 Lepton Types

42 m nene t nene

43 Electron Antineutrino, n e Positron, e + mass ( 1 ) + 3 Antiparticles Muon Antineutrino, n m Muon, m + mass ( 200 ) + Tau Antineutrino, n m Tau, t + mass ( 3500 ) +

44 Where do they come from?

45 Everywhere!

46 From the Big Bang Artist's conception

47 From the Big Bang Artist's conception One cubic foot of space contains about 10,000,000 neutrinos left over from the Big Bang.

48 From Astrophysical Objects Supernovae created the heavy elements (us) and neutrinos may be responsible for the star exploding.

49 From the Sun ≈ 70 million per cm 2 per second at the Earth

50 From The Earth

51 From Us.

52 So why don't we notice? n are almost ghosts. They interact extremely weakly with matter. To a neutrino a planet is mostly empty space.

53 "The chances of a neutrino actually hitting something as it travels through all this howling emptiness are roughly comparable to that of dropping a ball bearing at random from a cruising 747 and hitting, say, an egg sandwich." Douglas Adams

54 500,000,000,000,000 solar n just went through you

55 Super-Kamiokande 42 m 1 km underground 50,000 tons of water

56

57 Why do we study them?

58 As Probes Astrophysics Geophysics Cosmology Particle Physics

59 Amount of matter in Universe Second most common (known) particle in the universe

60 Universal Structure m  eVm  eV m  eVm  eV

61 Why is there more matter than antimatter?

62 10,000,000,001 Matter 10,000,000,000 Antimatter Thanks to Hitoshi Maruyama

63 Q. Is there a difference between the physics of matter and antimatter? A.Yes there is. We've never seen it in neutrinos, though. Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry n n n n n n n n n n n n “Leptogenesis”

64 How to study this...?

65 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years l nlnl l nlnl A typical neutrino experiment

66 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years l l A typical neutrino experiment

67 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years e m A typical neutrino experiment

68 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years e nene m nmnm Neutrinos change flavour between source and detector!

69 Distance Travelled Prob. It is n e 0 1 e nene m nmnm distance

70 What the....? Q. How can a n e spontaneously turn into a n m ?

71 What the....? Q. How can a n e spontaneously turn into a n m ? A. The n e isn't a particle. It's three! n e ≡ “that thing which was always produced/detected with an electron” e nene

72 Quantum Stuff e nene e n1n1 e n2n2 e n3n3 = or 60% 30% 10%

73 e nene m nmnm Original n 1,n 2,n 3 mixture Different n 1,n 2,n 3 mixture n 1,n 2,n 3 travels at different speeds This can only happen if n 1,n 2,n 3 have different masses Only gives us differences in masses Long journey

74 295 km T2K

75 Things we still don't know How much do n 1,n 2 and n 3 weigh? Why are they so much lighter than all the other massive particles? Are neutrinos the same as antineutrinos? Are neutrinos the reason we are here at all?

76 JPARC Facility nmnm

77 Super-Kamiokande nmnm nene

78 Economic Impacts 5% of jobs in UK are in physics-based sectors Gross added value from physics sector was estimated to be 70 billion pounds in 2005 Synergy between PP projects and industry – industry acquires added skills base for other applications Training - 50% of PP PhDs go into other sectors Radioisotope production Sensors for medical applications High level computing for biological/climate modelling Spin off tools for other science (e.g. DIAMOND) Nuclear fusion research Muon tomography in border security Airport scanners Rock Imaging Cancer treatment using next gen cyclotrons proton therapy

79 ‘‘...these kind of findings have implications that are not limited to the laboratory. They affect the whole of society — not only our economy, but our very view of life, our understanding of our relations with others, and our place in time.’’ Bill Clinton

80 From Radioactive Decay e.g. Decay of unstable nuclides in the core of the earth can tell us about its structure (Geoneutrinos) n  p + e + n e

81

82 Life and Death

83 Geoneutrinos Models suggest A total heatflow of 19 TW from radio- active decay A neutrino experiment in Japan measured 25 ± 20 TW

84 Geoneutrinos

85 JPARC Facility TARGET

86 From the Sun

87 enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn

88 enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn

89 I give you...the Universe n?

90

91 L sin 2 (2q) Dm 2 = m 1 2 -m 2 2

92 Water Cerenkov

93 Electron-like : has a fuzzy ring Muon-like : has a sharp edged ring and particle stopped in detector.

94

95 JPARC Facility TARGET nmnm

96 Electron Antineutrino, n e Positron, e + mass ( 1 ) + 3 Antiparticles Muon Antineutrino, n m Muon, m + mass ( 200 ) + Tau Antineutrino, n m Tau, t + mass ( 3500 ) +

97 “At the present stage of atomic theory we have no arguments for upholding the concept of energy balance in the case of b-ray disintegrations.” Neils Bohr

98 Energy(Ra) ≠ Energy(Ac)+Energy(e)

99 The Sun in Neutrinos

100 From Cosmic Rays.

101 Super-Kamiokande

102

103 From The Earth

104 enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn

105

106

107 "The chances of a neutrino actually hitting something as it travels through all this howling emptiness are roughly comparable to that of dropping a ball bearing at random from a cruising 747 and hitting, say, an egg sandwich." Douglas Adams

108

109 Distance Travelled Prob. It is n e 0 1 e nene m nmnm distance

110 295 km T2K

111 Super-Kamiokande 42 m 1 km underground 50,000 tons of water

112 There is a difference between the physics of matter and antimatter

113 Neutrino Oscillations THE discovery in neutrinos of the last 20 years l nlnl l nlnl A typical neutrino experiment

114

115 Steve Boyd, University of Warwick Neutrinos and the case of the missing antimatter

116 How do we exist?

117 The Universe

118

119 Why is there more matter than antimatter?

120 There is a difference between the physics of matter and antimatter

121 There is a difference between the physics of matter and antimatter

122 How do we exist? We don't know (yet) but we're working on it The smallest, most insignificant (yet most common) particle in the cosmos may just hold the reason!

123 Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry n n n n n n n n n n n n A theory called “Leptogenesis” suggests that the asymmetry we see was generated by an asymmetry between neutrinos and anti-neutrinos at the beginning of things.

124 Electron Neutrino, n e 0 Very tiny mass (< ) Electron, e Tiny mass ( 1 ) What is a neutrino? Neutrinos are the second most common particle in the universe. Produced whereever you have radioactive decays

125

126

127

128 x 500

129 Electron Neutrino, n e Electron, e mass ( 1 ) - Muon Neutrino, n m Muon, m mass ( 200 ) - Tau Neutrino, n t Tau, t mass ( 3500 ) -- 3 Lepton Types

130 Electron Neutrino, n e Muon Neutrino, n m Tau Neutrino, n t 3 neutrino Flavours Electron Antineutrino, n e Muon Antineutrino, n m Tau Antineutrino, n m

131 From the Big Bang Artist's conception One cubic foot of space contains about 10,000,000 neutrinos left over from the Big Bang.

132 From Astrophysical Objects Supernovae created the heavy elements (us) and neutrinos may be responsible for the star exploding.

133 500,000,000,000,000 neutrinos from the sun just went through each and every one of you

134 From The Earth

135 From Us.

136 So why don't we notice? n are almost ghosts. They interact extremely weakly with matter. To a neutrino a planet is mostly empty space.

137 "The chances of a neutrino actually hitting something as it travels through all this howling emptiness are roughly comparable to that of dropping a ball bearing at random from a cruising 747 and hitting, say, an egg sandwich." Douglas Adams

138 enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn enpnenpn

139 Assume 1 billion people eat an egg sandwich every 3 months 1.67 x 10 7 egg sandwiches/day Let's say that 3 months of the year people can eat outside, and that they picnic one day every week 600,000 external egg sandwiches/day Area of egg sandwich – 15 cm x 15cm186 m 2 total egg-sandwich area egg sandwich lifetime – 20 minutes9000 egg sandwiches at any time Suppose flight paths cover area of earth uniformly Surface area of earth 500 million km 2 Probability of egg-sandwich/ ball bearing intersection 3 x Probability of average solar neutrino interaction 5 x

140 Assume 1 billion people eat an egg sandwich every 3 months 1.67 x 10 7 egg sandwiches/day Let's say that 3 months of the year people can eat outside, and that they picnic one day every week 600,000 external egg sandwiches/day Area of egg sandwich – 15 cm x 15cm186 m 2 total egg-sandwich area egg sandwich lifetime – 20 minutes9000 egg sandwiches at any time Suppose flight paths cover area of earth uniformly Surface area of earth 500 million km 2 Probability of egg-sandwich/ ball bearing intersection 3 x Probability of average solar neutrino interaction 5 x

141 Assume 1 billion people eat an egg sandwich every 3 months 1.67 x 10 7 egg sandwiches/day Let's say that 3 months of the year people can eat outside, and that they picnic one day every week 600,000 external egg sandwiches/day Area of egg sandwich – 15 cm x 15cm186 m 2 total egg-sandwich area egg sandwich lifetime – 20 minutes9000 egg sandwiches at any time Suppose flight paths cover area of earth uniformly Surface area of earth 500 million km 2 Probability of egg-sandwich/ ball bearing intersection 3 x Probability of average solar neutrino interaction 5 x

142 Assume 1 billion people eat an egg sandwich every 3 months 1.67 x 10 7 egg sandwiches/day Let's say that 3 months of the year people can eat outside, and that they picnic one day every week 600,000 external egg sandwiches/day Area of egg sandwich – 15 cm x 15cm186 m 2 total egg-sandwich area egg sandwich lifetime – 20 minutes9000 egg sandwiches at any time Suppose flight paths cover area of earth uniformly Surface area of earth 500 million km 2 Probability of egg-sandwich/ ball bearing intersection 3 x Probability of average solar neutrino interaction 5 x

143 Assume 1 billion people eat an egg sandwich every 3 months 1.67 x 10 7 egg sandwiches/day Let's say that 3 months of the year people can eat outside, and that they picnic one day every week 600,000 external egg sandwiches/day Area of egg sandwich – 15 cm x 15cm186 m 2 total egg-sandwich area egg sandwich lifetime – 20 minutes9000 egg sandwiches at any time Suppose flight paths cover area of earth uniformly Surface area of earth 500 million km 2 Probability of egg-sandwich/ ball bearing intersection 3 x Probability of average solar neutrino interaction 5 x

144 One cubic foot of space contains about 10,000,000 neutrinos left over from the Big Bang.


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