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1 FK7003 Lecture 3 – neutrino oscillations and hadrons ● Review of leptons ● Neutrino oscillations ● Introduction to hadrons.

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Presentation on theme: "1 FK7003 Lecture 3 – neutrino oscillations and hadrons ● Review of leptons ● Neutrino oscillations ● Introduction to hadrons."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 FK7003 Lecture 3 – neutrino oscillations and hadrons ● Review of leptons ● Neutrino oscillations ● Introduction to hadrons

2 2 FK7003 The lepton family Lepton (antilepton ) Charge (e) Mass (GeV) e - (e + )-1 (+1) e,( e ) 0 00   (  + ) -1 (+1)0.105     0 00   (  + ) -1 (+1)1.8     0 00 Spin 1/2 6 leptons + antileptons. Divided into 3 families/flavours/multipletes: electron,muon tau

3 3 FK7003 -- -- Lepton interactions e-e- e-e- e-e- W-W-  ++  Charged leptons interact via the em and weak forces. Neutrinos only interact via the weak force. Lepton number is always conserved at a vertex and in the whole process. As for all forces: Charge conservation and energy-momentum conservation for incoming and outgoing particles. Charge is conserved at a vertex though energy can appear to be violated when dealing with ”internal lines” (lecture 1).

4 4 FK7003 Neutrino masses Lepton Mass (MeV) e <  <0.2  <18

5 5 FK7003 Neutrino oscillations     Whole process violates: L   L  Conserves L   Conserves L 

6 6 FK7003 Neutrino oscillation formalism

7 7 FK7003 Real( i )  probability  prob. Real( i ) Real(  ) L

8 8 FK7003 Neutrino Interactions in Matter Probability of interaction ~ / km water at 100 TeV energy 100 billion neutrinos pass through your thumbnail each second but only 1-2 will interact in your body during your lifetime. I0I0  x)  interaction x E (TeV) Neutrino interaction lengthi In water/km

9 9 FK7003 relics from Big Bang natural radioactive decay in Earth nuclear reactors explosions of supernova remnants of supernova nuclear reactions in Sun interactions of cosmic rays in atmosphere Active Galactic Nuclei Neutrinos arriving at Earth – not for the exam Flux/energy (cm -2 s -1 MeV -1 ) Neutrino energy (eV) Relevant for this lecture

10 10 FK7003 Atmospheric neutrinos and Super Kamiokande Boat

11 11 FK7003 Super-K:  oscillations Super-K  15 km  km From above From below no oscillations P(      (Data/Prediction for oscillations) oscillations Earth

12 12 FK7003 Atmospheric neutrino results E=1 GeV

13 13 FK7003 relics from Big Bang natural radioactive decay in Earth nuclear reactors explosions of supernova remnants of supernova nuclear reactions in Sun interactions of cosmic rays in atmosphere Active Galactic Nuclei Neutrinos arriving at Earth – not for the exam Flux/energy (cm -2 s -1 MeV -1 ) Neutrino energy (eV) Relevant for this lecture

14 14 FK7003 Neutrinos in the sun – not for the exam ● Fusion process leading to  ● k e measured flux on earth can be predicted Solar neutrino energies

15 15 FK7003 Solar neutrino problem

16 16 FK7003 SNO

17 17 FK7003 Results

18 18 FK7003 Generalise for 3 neutrinos

19 19 FK7003   Mass 2 (eV 2 ) Flavour composition of mass state.

20 20 FK7003 Question

21 21 FK7003 Question

22 22 FK7003 Question

23 23 FK7003 Summary of neutrino oscillations ● Neutrinos produced in the weak force are flavour eigenstates but not mass eigenstates. ● Neutrino oscillations between flavours occur as a consequence of non-zero mixing angles and a non- zero difference between the mass states ● Experiments on atmospheric and solar neutrinos demonstrate neutrino oscillations.


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