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1 TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria NASIS.

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Presentation on theme: "1 TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria NASIS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria TSS PERSPECTIVE Module 2 –Section 1 Developing interpretation criteria NASIS SOIL SURVEY INTERPRETATIONS

3 2 Objectives Differentiate between Soil Properties and Soil Interpretations Differentiate between Soil Properties and Soil Interpretations Identify the 8 step process in interpretation creation Identify the 8 step process in interpretation creation Understand how to compile the list of soil properties for specific interpretations and identify their inter-relationships Understand how to compile the list of soil properties for specific interpretations and identify their inter-relationships

4 3 Define Property: a : a quality or trait belonging and especially peculiar to an individual or thing b : an effect that an object has on another object or on the senses c : an attribute common to all members of a class

5 4 Define Interpretation: 1 : to explain or tell the meaning of : present in understandable terms 2 : to conceive in the light of individual belief, judgment, or circumstance 3 : to represent by means of art : bring to realization by performance or direction 3 : to represent by means of art : bring to realization by performance or direction

6 5 Interpretations NSSH (a ) Definition Soil survey interpretations predict soil behavior for specified soil uses and under specified soil management practices. Soil survey interpretations predict soil behavior for specified soil uses and under specified soil management practices. They help to implement laws, programs, and regulations at local, State, and National levels. They help to implement laws, programs, and regulations at local, State, and National levels. They assist the planning of broad categories of land use, such as cropland, rangeland, pastureland, forestland, or urban development. They assist the planning of broad categories of land use, such as cropland, rangeland, pastureland, forestland, or urban development. They are also used to assist in pre- and post- planning activities for national emergencies. They are also used to assist in pre- and post- planning activities for national emergencies. Soil survey interpretations also help to plan specific management practices that are applied to soils, such as irrigation of cropland or equipment use. Soil survey interpretations also help to plan specific management practices that are applied to soils, such as irrigation of cropland or equipment use.

7 6 Properties ?? What soil properties do you extract from a pedon description?? Pedon Description Properties Interpretations Lab Data

8 7 Interpretations NSSH (e) Basis for features Laboratory and field measurements, models and inferences from soil properties, morphology, and geomorphic characteristics provide the values used for estimating soil properties. Sources of laboratory data commonly are the Soil Survey Laboratory, Agricultural Experiment Station laboratories, and State Highway Department testing laboratories. Pedon descriptions record field measurements, field observations, and descriptions of soil morphology. Develop lab sampling plans to fill data gaps. Changes to soil features in the database change soil interpretive results. Soil scientists prepare entries and change entries with interdisciplinary assistance of engineers, agronomists, foresters, biologists, resource conservationists, range conservationists, and others.

9 8 Examples Interpretations ?? Interpretations ?? Properties ?? Properties ?? Texture ? Sand, silt and clay K factor ? Silt, VF Sand, Sand > 0.1mm, OM, Structure, Permeability Septic tank Adsorption fields? Permeability S, Si, C water table rocks flooding, etc.

10 9 Objectives of NASIS INTERPRETATIONS Develop a soil survey interpretation system that is: Develop a soil survey interpretation system that is: Constant Constant Natural Natural Defensible Defensible

11 10 Objective of NASIS INTERPRETATIONS Constant - Large shifts in interpretative results do not occur among soils which are similar and have insignificant differences in physical, chemical, or climatic soil properties. Constant - Large shifts in interpretative results do not occur among soils which are similar and have insignificant differences in physical, chemical, or climatic soil properties. Natural Natural Defensible Defensible

12 11 Objective of NASIS INTERPRETATIONS Constant Constant Natural - Represents the natural gradation of a soil’s physical, chemical, and climatic characteristics across landscapes and broad geographical areas. Natural - Represents the natural gradation of a soil’s physical, chemical, and climatic characteristics across landscapes and broad geographical areas. Defensible Defensible

13 12 Objective of NASIS INTERPRETATIONS Constant Constant Natural Natural Defensible - Requires few or no exceptions to the basic interpretive evaluations and rules to correctly array soil interpretive rating values across large geographical areas. Defensible - Requires few or no exceptions to the basic interpretive evaluations and rules to correctly array soil interpretive rating values across large geographical areas. No Overrides

14 13 Writing Soil Interpretation Criteria (617.09) Developing interpretations criteria involves the user. Interdisciplinary involvement is required in developing criteria for interpretations in order to assure that the needs of potential users are addressed. Also consider the clarity, accuracy, and the ability of the criteria to be easily created and modified. Local, state, regional, and national offices develop criteria to represent user needs. They follow a consistent procedure and firmly establish principles for documentation. Consider the ease of development and the stability of the interpretation. Use the expert judgment of specialists and the scientific literature as resources. People who work with the intended use and application know more than what can be speculated by those people with less experience. Developing interpretations criteria involves the user. Interdisciplinary involvement is required in developing criteria for interpretations in order to assure that the needs of potential users are addressed. Also consider the clarity, accuracy, and the ability of the criteria to be easily created and modified. Local, state, regional, and national offices develop criteria to represent user needs. They follow a consistent procedure and firmly establish principles for documentation. Consider the ease of development and the stability of the interpretation. Use the expert judgment of specialists and the scientific literature as resources. People who work with the intended use and application know more than what can be speculated by those people with less experience.

15 14 Writing Soil Interpretation Criteria (617.09) Step 1. Define the Activity Step 2. Separate Aspects Step 3. Identify Site Features Step 4. List Soil Properties Step 5. Select the Number of Separations Step 6. Document Assumptions Step 7. Develop the Criteria Table Step 8. Application, Presentation, and Testing

16 a. Define the Activity describe the activity or use; describe the activity or use; identify the purposes of the activity or use; identify the purposes of the activity or use; define the desired performance of the activity or use; define the desired performance of the activity or use; specify the soil depths that are affected; specify the soil depths that are affected; identify the type of equipment for installation; identify the type of equipment for installation; define the needed map and interpretation reliability and uniformity. define the needed map and interpretation reliability and uniformity.

17 16 Interpretation Design Choices Class – The rule is designed to result in the soil being interpreted as a member of a discrete class. Class – The rule is designed to result in the soil being interpreted as a member of a discrete class. Limitation – The rule is designed in a manner such that the higher the value, the more limited the soil is for the stated use. Limitation – The rule is designed in a manner such that the higher the value, the more limited the soil is for the stated use. Suitability – The rule is designed in a manner such that the higher the value, the better suited the soil is for the stated use. Suitability – The rule is designed in a manner such that the higher the value, the better suited the soil is for the stated use.

18 17 Define the Activity Development of the Interpretive Statement Either Positive (Suitability) Either Positive (Suitability) “a site is suitable (has no limitations) for picnic areas if it is not too wet or not too steep.” Or Negative (Limitation) Or Negative (Limitation) “a site has limitations for picnic areas if it is too wet or too steep.”

19 18 Step 1. Define the Activity Regardless of the perspective you choose, the statement must contain the three elements of land use, limiting features (soil features affecting use), and the relationship (or logical connection) between the limiting features.

20 b. Separate Aspects Separate different aspects of the activity for separate interpretations. Aspects of interpretations are planning elements that require different criteria, such as installation, performance, maintenance, and effect. Each aspect is a unique interpretation that has separate criteria and users. Mention other aspects that may need interpretation but are not addressed. Separate different aspects of the activity for separate interpretations. Aspects of interpretations are planning elements that require different criteria, such as installation, performance, maintenance, and effect. Each aspect is a unique interpretation that has separate criteria and users. Mention other aspects that may need interpretation but are not addressed.

21 c. Identify Site Features Identify significant site features for the interpretation and any assumptions about them. Site features are not soil properties, but are features such as climate factors, landscape stability hazard, vegetation, and surface characteristics. Identify and record the implied affect of site features on each aspect of the interpretation. Although site features are not soil properties, they are commonly recorded on soil databases and are valuable for developing interpretations because they are geographically specific to soils.

22 21 Developing Soil Interpretation Criteria (617.09) Step 1. Define the Activity Step 2. Separate Aspects Step 3. Identify Site Features Step 4. List Soil Properties Step 5. Select the Number of Separations Step 6. Document Assumptions Step 7. Develop the Criteria Table Step 8. Application, Presentation, and Testing

23 d. List Soil Properties Identify and list the specific soil properties that are significant to the interpretation. Use only basic properties, qualities, or observed properties and do not make interpretations from previous interpretations or models. Identify and list the specific soil properties that are significant to the interpretation. Use only basic properties, qualities, or observed properties and do not make interpretations from previous interpretations or models.

24 e. Select the Number of Separations Select the number of interpretative separations (groups), and define the intent of the separation or classification. Each separation should have a purpose, which normally represents a significant management grouping and a need for separate treatment. Commonly used terms in separations are Not Limited (slight), Somewhat Limited (moderate), and Very Limited (severe) for limitations or good, fair, and poor for suitability's. User needs dictate the number of separations. The levels of user needs may vary. Some users do not use groupings (class).

25 f. Document Assumptions Document assumptions about the significance of the property and established values for separating criteria. Document assumptions about the significance of the property and established values for separating criteria. 1. Record the significance of the property 2. Indicate why the feature is important and why the specific break was chosen 3. Establish values that are significant to the interpretation and not to the mapping

26 g. Develop the Criteria Table Assign feature and impact terms, and develop the criteria table. The following categories of column headings are recommended for use in the criteria table: Assign feature and impact terms, and develop the criteria table. The following categories of column headings are recommended for use in the criteria table: Factor - this is the soil property; Factor - this is the soil property; Degree of Limitation - such as Very Limited (severe), Moderately Limited (moderate), Not Limited (slight), etc.; Degree of Limitation - such as Very Limited (severe), Moderately Limited (moderate), Not Limited (slight), etc.; Feature - the term to be displayed for soil property; and Feature - the term to be displayed for soil property; and Impact - the dominant impact that the soil property has on the practice being rated. Impact - the dominant impact that the soil property has on the practice being rated.

27 h. Application, Presentation, and Testing Database needs Database needs Temporal considerations for application Temporal considerations for application Reliability Reliability Testing Testing Date the interpretation and criteria Date the interpretation and criteria

28 27 Documenting Soil Interpretation Criteria (617.10) It is important to document information used during development and maintenance of soil interpretations. Soil interpretation users should be able to locate information and references used to develop the interpretation’s rules and criteria. Information regarding the interpretation’s ratings and the person who developed the soil interpretation are helpful in testing or validating interpretations and for determining the geographic extent of intended use of the interpretation. The standard procedure to document soil interpretations is within the National Soil Information System. This assures critical information accompanies products delivered through the Soil Data mart and Web Soil Survey.

29 28 Exercise The city of Springfield, MO is building a new park. They come to you requesting the interpretation for a Picnic Area. What aspects, site features and soil properties are needed to make an area a good location for a picnic area? NEXT

30 29 Example: Writing Soil Interpretation Criteria (617.09) Step 1. Define the Activity (includes the interpretive statement) Step 2. Separate Aspects Step 3. Identify Site Features Step 4. List Soil Properties NEXT

31 30 Step 1. Define the Activity The city of Springdale is looking at new park and recreational areas. They wish to design criteria that will identify sites suitable for picnic areas. It is desirable for the sites to be dry and as level as possible to assure walking comfort and suitable sites for tables and benches. Deep soils are preferred to maintain suitable grass cover to overcome excessive compaction due to traffic. Picnic areas will use concrete tables and benches and small loaders will be used during placement. These sites may also be suitable for hiking areas and playgrounds. The areas will encompass a minimum of 5 acres, however some may be as small as 1 acre. The interpretation will be used by the county for broad land use identification of areas suitable for picnic areas.

32 31 Interpretive Statements Remember, the interpretive statement says something about the land use, limiting features, and the relationship among the limiting features. For your picnic area example: Remember, the interpretive statement says something about the land use, limiting features, and the relationship among the limiting features. For your picnic area example: A soil has limitations for picnic areas if it is “too wet” or “too steep”. NEXT

33 32 Step 2. Separate Aspects Suitable areas may be in locations that may require some leveling of the site during the installation process. Sites that are too steep will require use of earth moving machinery. All sites will need to be crowned in order to provide suitable runoff for long term maintenance. If the seasonal water table is too wet then during the installation process suitable drain lines should be located to lower the water table for picnic uses during wetter seasons of the year. Suitable areas may be in locations that may require some leveling of the site during the installation process. Sites that are too steep will require use of earth moving machinery. All sites will need to be crowned in order to provide suitable runoff for long term maintenance. If the seasonal water table is too wet then during the installation process suitable drain lines should be located to lower the water table for picnic uses during wetter seasons of the year.

34 33 Step 2. Separate Aspects What is considered “Too wet” ? or “Too steep” ? for the installation, performance, maintenance and effect of this picnic area interpretation? What is considered “Too wet” ? or “Too steep” ? for the installation, performance, maintenance and effect of this picnic area interpretation? NEXT

35 34 Step 3. Identify Site Features Picnic areas will be influenced by the geographical location, the rainfall totals, the amount of surface stones and steep slopes. This issues will need to be addressed once the sites are selected. Picnic areas will be influenced by the geographical location, the rainfall totals, the amount of surface stones and steep slopes. This issues will need to be addressed once the sites are selected.

36 35 Step 4. List Soil Properties The soil properties impacting the site selection for picnic areas will include those influencing water infiltration, soil water movement, properties that affect trafficability and vegetation growth. The soil properties impacting the site selection for picnic areas will include those influencing water infiltration, soil water movement, properties that affect trafficability and vegetation growth.

37 36 Step 4. Picnic Area Soil Properties Organic matter FloodingStonesPermeabilityPondingSalinitySandBedrock Depth to Pan Slope Gravel content SodiumAcidity Clay content Water Table

38 37 Step 5. Select the Number of Separations As a picnic area interpretation designed for broad land use planning, it is decided to create three separations to be named “Not Limited”, “Somewhat Limited”, and “Very Limited”. As a picnic area interpretation designed for broad land use planning, it is decided to create three separations to be named “Not Limited”, “Somewhat Limited”, and “Very Limited”.

39 38 Evaluating Soil Properties Soils are too steep if the slope exceed 15 percent. Soils are too steep if the slope exceed 15 percent. Soils are not too steep if the slope is less that 5 percent. Soils are not too steep if the slope is less that 5 percent. Soils between 5 and 15 percent will be evaluated using a sigmoid curve Soils between 5 and 15 percent will be evaluated using a sigmoid curve Soils with a water table from the surface to 50 cm are too wet Soils with a water table from the surface to 50 cm are too wet Soils with a water table greater than 200 cm from the surface are not too wet Soils with a water table greater than 200 cm from the surface are not too wet Soils with a water table between the ranges will be evaluated using a sigmoid curve Soils with a water table between the ranges will be evaluated using a sigmoid curve

40 39 Step 6. Document Assumptions Document assumptions about the significance of the property and established values for separating criteria. Document assumptions about the significance of the property and established values for separating criteria. (a) A record of the significance of the water table and the slope properties (b) Indicate why the feature is important and why the specific break was chosen – Why was 200 cm chosen? Why was 15 percent chosen? (c) Establish values that are significant to the interpretation and not to the mapping Don’t use standard slope groups – look for the actual slope issues in the design

41 40 Step 7. Develop the Criteria Table Assign feature and impact terms, and develop the criteria table. The following categories of column headings are recommended for use in the criteria table: Assign feature and impact terms, and develop the criteria table. The following categories of column headings are recommended for use in the criteria table: Factor (this is the soil property); Factor (this is the soil property); Degree of Limitation (such as Not Limited, Somewhat Limited, Very Limited); Degree of Limitation (such as Not Limited, Somewhat Limited, Very Limited); Feature (the term to be displayed for soil property); and Feature (the term to be displayed for soil property); and Impact (the dominant impact that the soil property has on the practice being rated). Impact (the dominant impact that the soil property has on the practice being rated).

42 41 Evaluating Soil Properties PropertyLimitsRestriction Not Limited Somewhat Limited Very Limited FloodingNoneOthers Freq, V. Freq Flooding Water Table > <50 Too Wet Texture S, LS, C, SiCL Ksat Slope <8 8-15>15 Too Steep

43 42 TSS Interpretations This completes section 1 of the Soil Interpretations for Technical Soil Scientists This completes section 1 of the Soil Interpretations for Technical Soil Scientists Sections 2 and 3 are next Sections 2 and 3 are next


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