31. Cognition Mental processes, information processing Mental process or faculty of knowing, including awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.
4The formal approach: structural patterns, including the study of morphological, syntactic, and lexical structure.The psychological approach: language from the view of general systems ranging from perception, memory, attention, and reasoning.The conceptual approach: how language structures (processes & patterns) conceptual content.
52. Psycholinguistics Psychological aspects of language. Psychological states and mental activity with the use of language.Language acquisition, language production & comprehension.
7Six subjects of research Language acquisition (L1 / L2)Language comprehensionLanguage productionLanguage disordersLanguage and ThoughtNeurocognition
82.1 Language Acquisition Holophrastic stage Language’s sound patterns Phonetic distinctions in parents’ language.One-word stage: objects, actions, motions, routines.
9Two-word stage: around 18m Child utteranceMature speakerPurposeWant cookieI want a cookieRequestMore milkI want some more milkJoe seeI (Joe) see youInformingMy cupThis is my cupWarningMommy chairThis chair belongs to MBig boyI am a big boyBraggingRed carThat car is redNamingThat carThat is a car
10Child utteranceMature speakerPurposeNo sleepI don’t want to go to sleepRefusalNot tiredI am not tiredWhere doll?Where is the doll?QuestionTruck tableThe truck is on the tableInformingDaddy runDaddy is runningJoe pushI (Joe) pushed (the cat)Push catI pushed the carGive candyGive me the candyRequest
11Three-word-utterance stage Give doggie paper.Put truck window.Tractor go floor.
12Fluent grammatical conversation stage Embed one constituent inside another:Give doggie paper. Give big doggie paper.Use more function words: missing function words and inflection in the beginning but good use (90%) by the age of 3, with a full range of sentence types.All parts of all language are acquired before the child turns four.
132.2 Language comprehension Mental lexicon: information about the properties of words, retrievable when understanding languageFor example, we may use morphological rules to decompose a complex word like rewritable the first few times we encounter it and after several exposures we may store and access it as a unit or word.It means that frequency of exposure determines our ability to recall stored instances.
14Connectionism: readers use the same system of links between spelling units and sound units to generate the pronunciations of written words like tove and to access the pronunciations of familiar words like stove, or words that are exceptions to these patterns, like love.Similarity and frequency play important roles in processing and comprehending language, with the novel items being processed based on their similarity to the known ones.
15Word recognition Cohort theory: Marslen-Wilson & Welsh (1978) The first few phonemes of a spoken word activate a set of word candidates that are consistent with the input.
16Interactive model:Higher processing levels have a direct, “top-down” influence on lower levels.Lexical knowledge can affect the perception of phonemes. There is interactivity in the form of lexical effects on the perception of sub-lexical units.In certain cases, listeners’ knowledge of words can lead to the inhibition of certain phonemes; in other cases, listeners continue to “hear” phonemes that have been removed from the speech signal and replaced by noise.
17Race model:Pre-lexical route: computes phonological information from the acoustic signalLexical route: the phonological information associated with a word becomes available when the word itself is accessedWhen word-level information appears to affect a lower-level process, it is assumed that the lexical route won the race.
18Factors involved in word recognition: Frequency effect: the ease with which a word is accessed due to its more frequent usage in the L.Recency effects: the ease with which a word is accessed due to its repeated occurrence in the discourse or context.Cotext: We recognize a word more readily when the preceding words provide an appropriate context for it.
19Lexical ambiguity All the meanings related to the word are accessed. Only one meaning is accessed initially.
20Are you engaged ?My friend drove me to the bank.They passed the port at midnight.Please give me a camel.上课做手术
21The clerk (entering): Are you engaged? Augustus: What business is that of yours? However, if you will take the trouble to read the society papers for this week, you will see that I am engaged to the Honourable Lucy Popham, youngest daughter of. . .The clerk: That isn’t what I mean. Can you see a female?Augustus: Of course, I can see a female as easily as a male. Do you suppose I am blind?(George Bernard Shaw: Augustus Does His Bit)
22Comprehension of sentences Serial models: the sentence comprehension system continually and sequentially follows constraints of a language’s grammarDescribe how the processor quickly constructs one or more representations of a sentence based on a restricted range of information that is guaranteed to be relevant to its interpretation, primarily grammatical information.Any such representation is then quickly interpreted and evaluated, using the full range of information that might be relevant.
23Parallel models: emphasize that the comprehension system is sensitive to a vast range of information, including grammatical, lexical, and contextual, as well as knowledge of the speaker/writer and of the world in general.Describe how the processor uses all relevant information to quickly evaluate the full range of possible interpretations of a sentence.It is generally acknowledged that listeners and readers integrate grammatical and situational knowledge in understanding a sentence.
24Structural factors in comprehension Comprehension of written and spoken language can be difficult because it is not always easy to identify the constituents (phrases) of a sentence and the ways in which they relate to one another.Psycholinguists have proposed principles interpreting sentence comprehension with respect to the grammatical constraints.
25Minimal attachment: the “structurally simpler”--structural simplicity guides all initial analyses in sentence comprehension.The second wife will claim the inheritance belongs to her.
26Garden path sentences The horse raced past the barn fell. The man who hunts ducks out on weekends.The cotton clothing is usually made of grows in Mississippi.Fat people eat accumulates.
27Lexical factors in comprehension The human sentence processor is primarily guided by information about specific words that is stored in the lexicon.The salesman glanced at a/the customer with suspicion/ripped jeans.
28Syntactic ambiguityDifferent possible ways in which words can be fit into phrases.Ambiguous category of some of the words in the sentence.
30May likes the vase on the cupboard which she bought yesterday. The students will discuss their plan to hold a dancing party in the classroom.I know Simon better than you.Tell me if you have time.
31My brother wasn’t reading all the time. The chairman appointed Mr. Brown an assistant.The scholar wrote long thesis and books.Flying planes can be dangerous.
32Comprehension of textResonance model: information in long-term memory is automatically activated by the presence of material that apparently bears a rough semantic relation to it.
33Discourse interpretation Schemata and drawing inferencesSchema: a pre-existing knowledge structure in memory typically involving the normal expected patterns of things.
34[RESTAURANT] Schema:Entering, ordering, eating and exiting.Entering Scene:The customer enters a restaurant,looks for a table,decides where to sit,walks to the table…
35John went into a restaurant. He asked the waitress for coq au vin John went into a restaurant. He asked the waitress for coq au vin. He ate it, paid the bill and left. (perfectly understandable)John went into a restaurant. He saw a waitress. He got up and went home. (does not seem to make sense)
36Apartment for rent. $500.I stopped to get some groceries but there weren't any baskets left so by the time I arrived at the check-out counter I must have looked like a juggler having a bad day.
37A: Would you like a coffee? B: Yes, please.…B: No and no.A: Right.
39Pragmatic ambiguity There is a fly in my soup. Today is Sunday. “Do you enjoy sitting beside me?” she asked coldly.“Oh, no, ”I said.“Well, you are not wanted here. ”(W. E. B. DuBois, “On Being Crazy”)
402.3 Language production Access to words Conceptualization: what to expressWord selection: a competitive processMorpho-phonological encoding: target words
41Generation of sentences Conceptual preparation: deciding what to say – a global plan is neededWord retrieval and application of syntactic knowledgeProcesses of sentence generationFunctional planning: assigning grammatical functionsPositional encoding: getting into positions for each unit
42Written language production Similar to spoken language.Orthographic form instead of phonological form.However, phonology plays an important role in this process.Writers have more time available for conceptual preparation and planning.
433. Cognitive Linguistics Cognition is the way we think.Cognitive linguistics is the scientific study of the relation between the way we communicate and the way we think.It is an approach to language that is based on our experience of the world and the way we perceive and conceptualize it.
44Three main approaches The Experiential View The Prominence View The Attentional View
45Experiential view Car: a box-like shape, wheels, doors, windows comfort, speed, mobility, independence,social status
46Prominence viewThe selection and arrangement of the information that is expressed.The car crashed into the tree.The tree is hit by the car.
47Attentional viewWhat we actually express reflects which parts of an event attract our attention.The car crashed into the tree.How the car started to swerve;How it skidded across the road;How it rumbled onto the verge.
483.1 ConstrualConstrual: the ability to conceive and portray the same situation in different ways
491). Attention / salienceWe activate the most relevant concepts more than concepts that are irrelevant to what we are thinking about.We drove the road.She ran across the road.The workers dug through the road.
502). Judgment / Comparison, Figure / Ground We cannot attend to all facets of a scene at the same time.We cannot pay attention to everything. Instead, we focus on events of particular salience.Figure-ground organizationThe ground seems to be placed behind the figure extending in the background.The figure is thus more prominent, or even more interesting, than the ground.
52Figure-ground also seems to apply to our perception of moving objects. In order to distinguish between stationary and dynamic figure-ground relations, some cognitive linguists (e.g. Ronald Langacker) use the term trajector for a moving figure and landmark for the ground of a moving figure.
53There’s a cat[figure] on the mat[ground] There are still some peanuts[figure] in the bag[ground]Batman[figure] was standing on the roof[ground]The computer[figure] under the table[ground] is mineThe spacecraft[figure] was hovering over Metropolis[ground]
54Tarzan[trajector] jumped into the river[landmark] Spiderman[trajector] climbed up the wall[landmark]The bird[trajector] winged its way out the window[landmark]We[trajector] went across the field[landmark]I[trajector]’m going to London[landmark]
553). Perspective generally depends on two things. where we are situated in relation to the scene we're viewing.how the scene is arranged in relation to our situatedness.The man is in front of the tree.The tree is behind the man.
56The tree is in front of the man. The man is behind the tree.
573.2 CategorizationThe process of classifying our experiences into different categories based on commonalities and differencesA major ingredient in the creation of human knowledgeAllows us to relate present experiences to past onesThree levels:basic levelsuper ordinate levelsubordinate level.
593.3 Image SchemaJohnson, Mark The body in the mind: The bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
60An image-schema is a “skeletal” mental representation of a recurrent pattern of embodied (especially spatial or kinesthetic) experience.They are highly schematic representations of perceptually grounded experience.They emerge from our embodied interactions with the world.
61Center-periphery schema Involvesa physical or metaphorical core and edge, anddegrees of distance from the core.Examples (English):The structure of an appleAn individual’s perceptual sphereAn individual’s social sphere, with family and friends at the core and others having degrees of peripherality
62Containment schema Involves a physical or metaphorical boundary enclosed area or volume, orexcluded area or volume.
63Bodily experience: human bodies as containers. Structural elements: interior, boundary, exteriorBasic logic: For all A, X, either IN (X,A) or not.For all A, B, X, if CONTAINER (A) and CONTAINER (B) and IN (A, B) and IN (X, A), then IN (X, B).The ship is coming into view.She’s deep in thought.We stood in silence.
64Cycle schemaInvolves repetitious events and event series. Its structure includes the following:A starting pointA progression through successive events without backtrackingA return to the initial stateThe schema often has superimposed on it a structure that builds toward a climax and then goes through a release or decline.
65Examples (English) Days Weeks Years Sleeping and waking Breathing CirculationEmotional buildup and release
66End-of-path schemaAn image schema in which a location is understood as the termination of a prescribed pathExample (English): In the following sentence, it is understood that one must traverse the hill before reaching Sam’s home, which is at the end of the path:Sam lives over the hill.
67Force schemaInvolves physical or metaphorical causal interaction. It includes the following elements:A source and target of the forceA direction and intensity of the forceA path of motion of the source and/or targetA sequence of causation
69Link schemaConsists of two or more entities, connected physically or metaphorically, and the bond between them.Entity A Entity B
70Examples (English): A child holding her mother’s hand Someone plugging a lamp into the wallA causal “connection”Kinship “ties”
71Part-whole schemaInvolves physical or metaphorical wholes along with their parts and a configuration of the parts.Examples (English):Physical: The body and its partsMetaphorical: The family;The caste structure of India
72Path schemaInvolves physical or metaphorical movement from place to place, andconsists of a starting point, a goal, and a series of intermediate points.
73Physical: Paths; Trajectories Examples (English):Physical: Paths; TrajectoriesMetaphorical: The purpose-as-physical-goal metaphor, as expressed in the following sentences:Tom has gone a long way toward changing his personality.You have reached the midpoint of your flight training.She's just starting out to make her fortune.Jane was sidetracked in her search for self-understanding.
74Scale schemaInvolves an increase or decrease of physical or metaphorical amount, andconsists of any of the following:A closed- or open-endedprogression of amountA position in the progressionof amountOne or more norms of amountA calibration of amount
75Examples: Physical amounts Properties in the number system Economic entities such as supply and demand
76Verticality schema Involves “up” and “down” relations. Examples: Standing uprightClimbing stairsViewing a flagpoleWatching water rise in a tub
773.4 MetaphorGeorge Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980). Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.
78Conceptual Metaphor Theory Metaphors are actually cognitive tools that help us structure our thoughts and experiences in the world around us.Metaphor is a conceptual mapping, not a linguistic one, from one domain to another, not from a word to another.
79Target domain - what is actually being talked about. Source domain - the domain used as a basis for understanding targetOntological correspondenceEpistemic correspondenceTarget domain Source domainRATIONAL ARGUMENTWAR
81Example: LIFE IS A JOURNEY Ontological correspondence:source: JOURNEYtarget: LIFESTARTING POINTBIRTHTRAVELERPERSONPATHAGINGDESTINATIONDEATHOBSTACLESPROBLEMS IN LIFECROSSROADSCHOICES
82Epistemic correspondence TRAVELER LEAVES STARTING POINTPERSON IS BORNTRAVELER TRAVELS ALONG PATHPERSON AGESTRAVELER FACES A CROSSROADPERSON MUST TAKE A CHOICETRAVELER FACES AN OBSTACLEPERSON HAD PROBLEMS IN LIFETRAVELER REACHES DESTINATIONPERSON DIES
83Structural MetaphorProvides rich highly structured, clearly delineated source domain to structure target domain.The nature of the mapping: The mapping involves two types of correspondence between target and source domain, which are both grounded in our experiences in the world.
84Example: ARGUMENT IS WAR: Your claims are indefensible. He attacked every weak point in my argument.His criticisms were right on target.I demolished his argument.I’ve never won an argument with him.You disagree? OK, shoot!If you use that strategy, he’ll wipe you out.He shot down all of my arguments.
85Orientational Metaphor Gives a concept a spatial orientationCharacterized by a co-occurrence in our experienceGrounded in an experiential basis, which link together the two parts of the metaphorThe link verb “is”, part of the metaphor, should be seen as the link of two different co-occurring experiences.
86For example,MORE IS UPThis metaphor is grounded in the co-occurrence of two different kinds of experiences:adding more of a substance, andperceiving the level of the substance rise.
87CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN Examples:HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWNThat boosted my spiritsI’m feeling downI’m depressedCONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWNWake upHe fell asleepHe’s under hypnosis
883.5 MetonymyIt is a cognitive process in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same domain.The reference point activates the target.
89It is modeled as idealized cognitive models (ICMs) by Lakoff (1987), conceptual mappings by Radden & Kovecses (1999),domain highlighting by Croft (2002),combinations of mappings and highlighting by Ruiz de Mendoza (2000),scenarios by Panther & Thornburg (1999) andmore generally as reference-point activation by Langacker (1999) and Barcelona (2000).
90On the basis of the ontological realms, we may distinguish three categories: the world of “concept”the world of “form”the world of “things” and “events”They roughly correspond to the three entities that comprise the well-known semantic triangle.
91Thus, we have three ICMs in ontological realms: Sign ICMs, Reference ICMs and Concept ICMs. The interrelations between entities of the same or from different ontological realms lead to various ICMs and possibilities for metonymy.
92Two general conceptual configurations: whole ICM and its part(s)parts of an ICM.(1) Whole ICM and its part(s)(i) Thing-and-Part ICM, which may lead totwo metonymic variants:WHOLE THING FOR A PART OR THE THING: America for “United States”PART OF A THNG FOR THE WHOLE THING: England for “Great Britain”
93(ii) Scale ICM. Scales are a special class of things and the scalar units are parts of them. Typically, a scale as a whole is used for its upper end and the upper end of a scale is used to stand for the scale as a whole:WHOLE SCALE FOR UPPER END OF THE SCALE: Henry is speeding again for “Henry is going too fast.”UPPER END OF A SCALE FOR WHOLE SCALE: How old are you? for “what is your age?”
94(iii) Constitution ICM (iii) Constitution ICM. It involves matter, material or substances which are seen as constituting a thing.OBJECT FOR MATERIAL CONSTITUTING THE OBJECT: I smell skunk.MATERIAL CONSTITUTING AN OBJECT FOR THE OBJECT: wood for “forest”
95(iv) Event ICM. Events may be metaphorically viewed as things which may have parts. WHOLE EVENT FOR SUBEVENT: Bill smoked marijuana.SUBEVENT FOR WHOLE EVENT: Mary speaks Spanish.
96(v) Category-and-Member ICM (v) Category-and-Member ICM. A category and its members stand in a kind of relation.CATEGORY FOR A MEMBER OF THE CATEGORY: the pill for “birth control pill”MEMBER OF A CATEGORY FOR THE CATEGORY: aspirin for “any pain-relieving tablet”
97(vi) Cateory-and-Property ICM (vi) Cateory-and-Property ICM. Properties may either be seen metaphorically as possessed objects (PROPERTIES ARE POSSESSIONS) or metonymically as parts of an object.CATEGORY FOR DEFINING PROPERTY: jerk for “stupidity”DEFNING PROPERTY FOR CATEGORY: blacks for “black people”
98(vii) Reduction ICM. A final type of a PART FOR WHOLE metonymy is found in the reduction of the form of a sign.PART OF A FORM FOR THE WHOLE FORM: crude for “crude oil”
99(2) Parts of an ICM(i) Action ICM. It involves a variety of participants which may be related to the predicate expressing the action or to each other.AGENT FOR ACTION: to author a new book; to butcher the cowACTION FOR AGENT: writer, driver
100INSTRUMENT FOR ACTION: to ski, to hammer ACTION FOR INSTRUMENT: pencil sharpener; screwdriverOBJECT FOR ACTION: to blanket the bed; to dust the roomACTION FOR OBJECT: the best bites; the flight is waiting to depart
101RESULT FOR ACTION: to landscape the garden ACTION FOR RESULT: the production; the productMANNER FOR ACTION: to tiptoe into the roomMEANS FOR ACTION: He sneezed the tissue off the table.
102TIME FOR ACTION: to summer in Paris DESTINATION FOR MOTION: to porch the newspaperINSTRUMENT FOR AGENT: the pen for “writer”
103(ii) Perception ICM. Perception plays such an outstand role in our cognitive world that it merits an ICM of its own. Since perceptions may also be intentional, the Perception ICM may cross-classify with the Action ICM.THING PERCEIVED FOR PERCEPTION: There goes my knee for “There goes the pain in my knee”PERCEPTION FOR THING PERCEIVED: sight for “thing seen”
104(iii) Causation ICM. Cause and effect are so closely interdependent that one of them tends to imply the other. Moreover, they probably account for the fact that people often confuse causes and effects. In principle, the causation ICM may give rise to reversible metonymies:CAUSE FOR EFFECT: healthy complexion for “the good state of health bringing about the effect of healthy complexion”EFFECT FRO CAUSE: slow road for “slow traffic resulting from the poor state of the road”
105(iv) Production ICM. It involves actions in which one of the participants is a product created by the action. The production of objects seems to be a particularly salient type of causal action.PRODUCTION FOR PRODUCT: I’ve got a Ford for “car”
106INSTRUMENT FOR PRODUCT: Did you hear the whistle? For “its sound” PRODUCT FOR INSTRUMENT: to turn up the heat for “the radiator”PLACE FOR PROCUCT MADE THERE: china, mocha, camembert
107(v) Control ICM. It includes a controller and a person or object controlled. It gives rise to reversible metonymic relationships:CONTROLLER FOR CONTROLLED: Nixon bombed Hanoi.CONTROLLED FOR CONTROLLER: The Mercedes has arrived.
108(vi) Possession ICM. The possession ICM may lead to reversible metonymies: POSSESSOR FOR POSSESSED: That’s me for “my bus”; I am parked there for “My car”POSSESSED FOR POSSESSOR: He married money for “person with money”
109(vii) Containment ICM. The image-schematic situation of containment is so basic and well-entrenched that it deserves to be treated as an ICM of its own among locational relations.CONTAINER FOR CONTENTS: The bottle is sour for “milk”CONTENTS FOR CONTAINER: The milk tipped over for “the milk container tipped over”
110(viii) Location ICMs. Places are often associated with people living there, well-known institutions located there, events which occur or occurred there and goods produced or shipped from there. Hence, we find the following metonymies:PLACE FOR INHABITANTS: The whole town showed up for “the people”INHABITANTS FOR PLACE: The French hosted the World Cup Soccer Games for “France”
111PLACE FOR INSTITUTION: Cambridge won’t publish the book for “Cambridge University Press” INSTITUTION FOR PLACE: I live close to the University.PLACE FOR EVENT: Waterloo for “battle fought at Waterloo”EVENT FOR PLACE: Battle, name of the village in East Sussex where the Battle of Hastings was fought.
112(ix) Sign and Reference ICMs (ix) Sign and Reference ICMs. They lead to metonymies cross-cutting ontological realms. In sign metonymy, a (word-)form stand for a conventionally associated concept; in reference metonymies, a sign, concept or (word-)form stands for the real thing.WORDS FOR THE CONCEPTS THEY EXPRESS: a self-contradictory utterance
113(x) Modification ICM. It mainly applies to variant forms of a sign apart from reduction. SUBSTITUTE FORM FOR ORIGINAL FORM: Do you still love me? — Yes, I do.
1143.6 Blending TheoryAlso known as the integration theory, proposed by Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner (1994, 1995).A cognitive operation whereby elements of two or more “mental spaces” are integrated via projection into a new, blended space which has its unique structure.
115Blending operates on two input mental spaces to produce a third space, the blend. The blend inherits partial structure from the input spaces and has emergent structure of its own.There are some conditions needed when two input spaces I1 and I2 are blended:
116Cross-Space Mapping: there is a partial mapping of counterparts between the input spaces I1 and I2.
117Generic Space: It maps onto each of the inputs. It reflects some common, usually more abstract, structure and organization shared by the inputs.It defines the core cross-space mapping between them.
119Blend: the inputs I1 and I2 are partially projected onto a fourth space, the blend.
120Emergent Structure: the blend has emergent structure not provided by the inputs. This happens in three interrelated ways:
121Composition: Taken together, the projections from the inputs make new relations available that did not exist in the separate inputs.Completion: Knowledge of background frames, cognitive and cultural models, allows the composite structure projected into the blend from the inputs to be viewed as part of a larger self-contained structure in the blend. Elaboration: The structure in the blend can then be elaborated.