Presentation on theme: "Describe aspects of primary production in NZ"— Presentation transcript:
1 Describe aspects of primary production in NZ Internal Assessment (3 credits)
2 In the exam – the examiner will be looking for you ability to do the following… AchievementAchievement with MeritAchievement with ExcellenceDemonstrate knowledge of the geographic distribution of agricultural and horticultural primary production in New Zealand.Demonstrate detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution of agricultural and horticultural primary production in New Zealand.Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of the geographic distribution of agricultural and horticultural primary production in New Zealand.
3 Explanatory NotesDemonstrate knowledge requires description of the geographic distribution of types of agricultural and horticultural primary production and of the factors influencing this distribution. Demonstrate detailed knowledge requires explanation of the geographic distribution of types of agricultural and horticultural primary production and of the factors influencing this distribution. Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge requires applying knowledge of the factors influencing geographic distribution of types of agricultural and horticultural primary production. This may involve comparing and/or contrasting specific factors influencing geographic distribution. Factors influencing the geographic distribution of primary production refer to physical, climatic and market factors. Physical factors may include topography and soil. Climatic factors may include sunshine, rainfall, frost, wind and temperature. Market factors may include labour availability, proximity and transport to market, access to airports and/or seaports and access to processing plants. Types of agricultural and horticultural primary production may include apples, dairying, deer, fine wool, forestry, arable cropping, kiwifruit and grapes.
4 Contents Distribution What is NZ’s Primary Industry Mapping NZ’s Primary IndustryNZ Pipfruit Industry (apple focus)Marketing NZ applesThe NZ Dairy industryFonterra – increasing consumer demand
5 Resource - Aotearoa Resource A: Regions of New Zealand Names of RegionsNorthlandAucklandWaikatoBay of PlentyGisborne / East CoastHawke’s BayTaranakiWanganuiManawatuWairarapaWellingtonNelson & BaysMarlboroughWest CoastCanterburySouth Canterbury / North OtagoOtagoSouthland[/]
6 Resource – Climate info REGIONMEAN ANNUALTemperatureNumber of days with frostsRainfall (mm)Sunshine (hours)Temperature (°C)Very highest (°C)Very lowest (°C)Northland1412202115.630.8-0.15Auckland1240206015.130.5-2.510Bay of Plenty1198226014.533.7-5.342Waikato1190200913.734.7-9.963Gisborne1051218014.338.133Taranaki1432218230.3-2.415Hawkes Bay803218835.8-3.929Wanganui882204314.032.3-2.37Manawatu967173313.333.0-6.038Wairarapa979191512.735.2-6.960Wellington1249206512.831.1-1.9Nelson970240512.636.3-6.688Marlborough655240912.936.0-8.8West Coast2875186011.730.0-3.454Canterbury648210012.141.6-7.170South Canterbury / North Otago573182611.237.2-6.884Otago812158511.035.7-8.058Southland111216149.932.2-9.094
8 Resource D: Sea Ports and Airports International airport
9 What is NZ’s Primary Industry Primary: Being first in a list, series, or sequenceIndustry:A specific branch of manufacture and tradeA Primary Industry is therefore a business that is the first in a series of business?Primary Industry refers to a business that turns natural resources into products eg farming and fishing.
10 Which of these are not examples of a primary industry.
11 NZ’s Primary industry sectors AgricultureForestryHorticultureAquaculture
12 Match the following primary Industries to the correct sector AgricultureForestryHorticultureAquacultureVitacultureDairyingPip fruit (eg apples)BerriesGrapesPorkCitrusCut flowersArable crops (eg wheat)Pinus radiataPoultryDeerExtensive sheep and beefSemi-intensive sheep and beefMarket gardenswool
14 What are the factors that influence what the land can be used for in NZ Physical factorstopographyaspectSoilClimate factorsRainfallTemperature (inc frost)Sunlight hoursWindMarket factorslabour availabilitymarket proximity
15 Case study one. NZ apples Apples are NZ’s third largest horticultural cropIn 2007 export apples earned NZ $343,000,000
16 Apples in NZ Apple trees require a dry summer and cool winter. The apple tree thrives in locations that have a distinct winter period (the tree must have a dormancy period of at least hours per year under 7.2ºC)The summer needs to be dry and warm with intense sunshine.Nelson, Hawkes Bay and Otago and have the climate and soil fertility ideally suited for growing applesConditions found in Nelson produce fantastic colour, texture and flavour in apples.Link to ENZA – showing varieties grown in each region
17 Apples in NZ Major apple growing regions in NZ Hawke’s Bay Nelson OtagoMinor regionsWairarapaMarlboroughLink to Niwa climate data - graphs
18 Apples in NZ Practice Question Explain how TWO physical factors influence the location of the apple orchards in NZ.Explanation of physical factor (climatic):Explanation of physical factor (topography):The climate ideally is moderate in rainfall so that the grower does not have the cost of irrigation.High sunshine hours, cool winters, and warm summers allow the fruit to develop and ripen.the topography of the land used for apple trees is flat plains, which allows for easier harvesting and management of the trees (pruning and thinning).
19 Apples in NZ Labour availability Apples require major seasonal work inputs.Feb March April – PickingJune July August – PrunningNovember – ThinningThis requires the orchards to be located in areas where seasonal workers live or can easily relocate to.Click for link to Seasonal work website
20 Apples in NZ Market Proximity The majority of apples in NZ are exported as ‘fresh’. A minor amount are exported as processed (eg apple juice).Each orchard needs to be able to transport their apples quickly to a packing and storage facility.Nelson has multiple packing houses and coolstores
23 Apples in NZ If your orchard is close to a pack house and cool store Transport costs are reducedRisk of damage in transit is reducedProduct can be placed in ideal storage conditions quickly, reducing perishability.
24 NZ Dairy IndustryThe value of New Zealand dairy exports in was $NZ billion,The dairy industry is New Zealand’s biggest export earnerNew Zealand has 11,618 dairy herds and 4.25 million dairy cows and heifers in milk in (2008/09).New Zealand produces about 2% of total world production at around 16 billion litres per annum but, unlike most other countries, around 95% of it's dairy produce is exported rather than consumed by the domestic market.New Zealand is the world’s largest butter exporter and accounts for about 44% of all traded butter.
25 NZ Dairy IndustryIn summary NZ is very good at making top quality dairy products at a low cost!Key strengths of New Zealand’s world-class dairy industry are its:efficient all-grass farming system,large-scale processing,
26 NZ Dairy IndustryDairy cow Feed supply curve (when does the grass grow)The better matched feed supply is to feed demand – the cheaper it is to produce milkFeed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
27 Daily milking cow requirements: kg DM/cow/day at 11.0 MJ ME/kg DM Breed kg Lwt kg MS/cow/dayJJJ x FFrFrData from DairyNZ -
28 NZ Dairy Industry Dairy Cow Feed demand Curve Late summer drying off Birth (start of lactation)Feed requirements
29 NZ Dairy IndustryThe better matched feed supply is to feed demand – the cheaper it is to produce milkToo much grassToo little grassFeed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
30 NZ Dairy Industry Feed supply – when does the grass grow A top producing dairy farm would have a pasture growth curve more like the red line. Note the more even seasonal growth giving less dips and peaks in pasture growth.Feed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
31 NZ Dairy IndustryIn summary a good diary farm will have a climate that enables the grass to grow all year round.Climate conditions for this includeMild winters (warm winter temperatures)This keeps the soil temperature up over winter and allows a good ‘cover’ of grass going into calvingReliable rainfall over summerThis enables the grass to keep over summer and extend the lactation period through to autumnNote: ‘cover’ of grass = amount of grass stored in the paddock waiting to be fed to the cows
32 Key Dairy Farm areas in NZ NorthlandWaikatoTaranakiManawatuOtago/Southland (with the introduction of irrigation)Link to picture of irrigated Southland dairy farm
33 NZ Dairy Industry Market Factors. Most NZ dairy farms have the ability to store their milk for 2 to 3 days in one of these. After this it needs one of these to visit.
34 NZ Dairy IndustryTherefore dairy farms need to be close to a milk processing factory or collection point.Link to map showing location of Fontera dairy factories
35 NZ Dairy IndustryWhen formed in 2001, Fonterra was owned by 11,000 dairy farmers and supplied 95% of the country’s milk.The volume and reliability of Fonterra’s milk supply, which comes from more than 12,000 dairy farmers, has made it one of the top 10 dairy companies in the world. It is the leading New Zealand exporter of dairy products and is responsible for a third of international dairy trade.Fonterra’s global milk supply comes from farms in New Zealand, Australia, Chile and China, and it sells products to customers and consumers in 140 countries. It collects more than 13 billion litres of milk a year, and manufactures and markets over 1.8 million tonnes of product annually. It has around 20,000 staff in 40 countries, with over half of its staff working outside New Zealand.
36 NZ Dairy IndustryHow does Fontera as a grower organisation increase consumer demand?By having a large and reliable supply – Fontera can negotiate large trade agreements with different countries or large companies.These trade aggreements mean that NZ dairy farmers have access to these markets and can therefore produce more milk to fill t he market needs.