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Air Quality and Smoke Management Tools and Information for NRCS in Oregon Susan O’Neill Air Quality and Atmospheric Change Team, WNTSC November 2011 Photo.

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Presentation on theme: "Air Quality and Smoke Management Tools and Information for NRCS in Oregon Susan O’Neill Air Quality and Atmospheric Change Team, WNTSC November 2011 Photo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Quality and Smoke Management Tools and Information for NRCS in Oregon Susan O’Neill Air Quality and Atmospheric Change Team, WNTSC November 2011 Photo courtesy Lorraine Vogt

2 Overview Why Manage Smoke? How do I Manage Smoke? Fire Weather and Smoke Management Tools

3 … Fire Happens

4

5 Why manage smoke? Health Impacts Public Safety and Nuisance Visibility – Regional Haze Rule We are a Conservation Agency – Air Quality is a resource concern

6 Emissions from Fire Complete Combustion Complete Combustion Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Water (H 2 O) Incomplete Combustion Incomplete Combustion Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Particulate Matter (PM) Particulate Matter (PM) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Ozone (O 3 )

7 The Regulatory Process National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 6 Criteria Pollutants 6 Criteria Pollutants Particulate Matter (PM) Particulate Matter (PM) Ozone (O 3 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lead (Pb) Lead (Pb) Five year review cycle Five year review cycle Nonattainment Area (NAA) Nonattainment Area (NAA) State Implementation Plan (SIP) State Implementation Plan (SIP)

8 Particulate Matter (PM) PM2.5 PM2.5 Directly emitted (Primary) Directly emitted (Primary) Formed by chemical reaction (Secondary) Formed by chemical reaction (Secondary) PM10 PM10 Directly emitted (Primary) Directly emitted (Primary) Mostly mechanically generated Mostly mechanically generated Larger PM Larger PM Directly emitted (Primary) Directly emitted (Primary) Mostly geologic in origin (ex. volcanic, crustal) Mostly geologic in origin (ex. volcanic, crustal) From Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire 2001

9 Where Are Particles Removed or Deposited? >10 μm: nasal passages –5 μm: trachea, bronchi –<2 μm (smoke): bronchioles –<1 μm: in alveoli –Mouth (no filter system) –4-9-Rx410-EP –9–9

10 Health Impacts – PM2.5 The immune system sends white blood cells (lymphocytes), to surround the particulates, protecting the body from the foreign objects. The lymphocytes settle on the alveoli walls, causing inflammation and scarring. The built-up scar tissue slows oxygen flow, making transfer of air to capillaries more difficult The immune system sends white blood cells (lymphocytes), to surround the particulates, protecting the body from the foreign objects. The lymphocytes settle on the alveoli walls, causing inflammation and scarring. The built-up scar tissue slows oxygen flow, making transfer of air to capillaries more difficult

11 National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS) PM 2.5 Standard Revised 9/2006 PM 2.5 Standard Revised 9/2006 Old 24-hr Standard = 65 µg/m 3 Old 24-hr Standard = 65 µg/m 3 New 24-hr Standard = 35 µg/m 3 New 24-hr Standard = 35 µg/m 3 Annual Standard = 15 µg/m 3 Annual Standard = 15 µg/m 3 PM hr Standard = 150 µg/m 3 PM hr Standard = 150 µg/m 3 PM NAAQS currently under review PM NAAQS currently under review

12 NAA: Klamath Falls, Oakridge

13 NAA: Eugene/Springfield, Oakridge

14 Particulate matter can cause impacts on local, regional, and even global scales. Scales of Particulate Matter Influence Global Regional Local

15 Ozone (O 3 ) Two kinds of ozone Two kinds of ozone Stratospheric ozone layer protects us from harmful UV light Stratospheric ozone layer protects us from harmful UV light Tropospheric ozone that is harmful to human health and vegetation Tropospheric ozone that is harmful to human health and vegetation

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17 Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry Ozone is a “secondary pollutant” Ozone is a “secondary pollutant” Not directly emitted Not directly emitted Created in the atmosphere Created in the atmosphere VOC + NO X + sunlight -> O 3 VOC + NO X + sunlight -> O 3 NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) = NO2 and NO NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) = NO2 and NO VOC = Volatile Organic Compound VOC = Volatile Organic Compound Timescale: 1-2 hours Timescale: 1-2 hours Ozone typically forms downwind of precursor releases –From Bergin et al., 2007

18 Health Impacts - Ozone The alveoli cell walls are burned by ozone, causing scarring and thickening of the tissue, which makes the transfer of air to capillaries more difficult The alveoli cell walls are burned by ozone, causing scarring and thickening of the tissue, which makes the transfer of air to capillaries more difficult

19 National Ambient Air Quality Standards ( NAAQS) Ozone Standard Revised 3/2008 Ozone Standard Revised 3/2008 Old 8-hr Standard = ppm Old 8-hr Standard = ppm New 8-hr Standard = ppm New 8-hr Standard = ppm New Administration Remanded the 2008 Levels New Administration Remanded the 2008 Levels 9/22/2011 – The Administration decided to go forward with the 2008 levels. 9/22/2011 – The Administration decided to go forward with the 2008 levels. 52 areas expected to be designated nonattainment 52 areas expected to be designated nonattainment

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21 Exceptional Events Rule (EER) Promulgated 3/22/2007 Promulgated 3/22/2007 Monitoring data can be excluded from non- attainment designations if exceedance is due to an Exceptional Event. Monitoring data can be excluded from non- attainment designations if exceedance is due to an Exceptional Event. Natural Events Natural Events High Wind Events High Wind Events Natural Disasters and Associated Clean-up Activities Natural Disasters and Associated Clean-up Activities Stratospheric Ozone Intrusion Stratospheric Ozone Intrusion Volcanic & Seismic Activities Volcanic & Seismic Activities Wildland Fires Wildland Fires Prescribed Fires Prescribed Fires Other: Structural Fires, Chemical Spills, Terrorist Attacks, Transported Pollution Other: Structural Fires, Chemical Spills, Terrorist Attacks, Transported Pollution

22 How Do I Manage Smoke? Smoke Management is about managing the emissions from fire to reduce downwind impacts. Smoke Management is about managing the emissions from fire to reduce downwind impacts. Smoke is unlike most other pollutant sources – a control can not be put on it to scrub the emissions. Smoke is unlike most other pollutant sources – a control can not be put on it to scrub the emissions. Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire, 2001 (http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/5388) Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire, 2001 (http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/5388)

23 Basic Smoke Management Practices Six Basic Smoke Management Practices (BSMPs) Meteorological information for smoke management Trajectories from fire Smoke Dispersion

24 BSMP 1: Evaluate smoke dispersion conditions to minimize smoke impacts Before Before Identify smoke sensitive areas Identify smoke sensitive areas Identify meteorological conditions Identify meteorological conditions During During (critical) Obtain latest meteorological forecast (critical) Obtain latest meteorological forecast Obtain AQ conditions (AIRNOW) Obtain AQ conditions (AIRNOW) Verify forecast with observations (RAWS) Verify forecast with observations (RAWS) After, burn operations After, burn operations Assess smoldering conditions Assess smoldering conditions

25 Simple Smoke Screening Tool (Highly Recommended) From the Southern Forestry Smoke Management Guide Select: Smoke Products -> Smoke Screening Google Map application Zoom-in View Smoke Sensitive Areas Enter Location, Acres, Fuel type, ignition method, wind direction

26 Wind speed disperses smoke Wind speed disperses smoke Strong surface winds Strong surface winds plume lay-down near the surface plume lay-down near the surface inhibit vertical dispersion inhibit vertical dispersion Vertical wind profile Vertical wind profile Surface drag reduces winds at the surface Surface drag reduces winds at the surface Wind speed gradually increases with height Wind speed gradually increases with height Smoke disperses slower at the surface than aloft Smoke disperses slower at the surface than aloft Wind direction at the surface can be different than wind direction aloft. Wind direction at the surface can be different than wind direction aloft. Meteorological Parameters Wind Speed and Direction

27 Water and Climate Center Windroses – Oregon drose/ drose/ drose/ Astoria Astoria Eugene Eugene Medford Medford North Bend North Bend Pendleton Pendleton Portland Portland Redmond Redmond Salem Salem Frequency of wind direction Frequency of wind direction From 16 cardinal wind directions From 16 cardinal wind directions Color bands give frequency of wind speed Color bands give frequency of wind speed

28 Water and Climate Center Windroses – January Redmond, Oregon

29 Water and Climate Center Windroses – February Redmond, Oregon

30 Water and Climate Center Windroses – March Redmond, Oregon

31 Water and Climate Center Windroses – April Redmond, Oregon

32 Water and Climate Center Windroses – May Redmond, Oregon

33 Water and Climate Center Windroses – June Redmond, Oregon

34 Water and Climate Center Windroses – July Redmond, Oregon

35 Water and Climate Center Windroses – August Redmond, Oregon

36 Water and Climate Center Windroses – September Redmond, Oregon

37 Water and Climate Center Windroses – October Redmond, Oregon

38 Water and Climate Center Windroses – November Redmond, Oregon

39 Water and Climate Center Windroses – December Redmond, Oregon

40 Meteorological Parameters Valley Flows Winds may flow along a valley near the surface but be different aloft (away from the topographical influences) Winds may flow along a valley near the surface but be different aloft (away from the topographical influences) Surface heating/cooling: Surface heating/cooling: Surface cooling creates downslope flows, advecting smoke into drainage areas where roads often are. Surface heating in the morning creates upslope flows, lofting smoke. Photo by Roger Ottmar.

41 Meteorological Parameters Mixing Height Height of the atmosphere above the ground which is well mixed due either to mechanical turbulence or convective turbulence. Height of the atmosphere above the ground which is well mixed due either to mechanical turbulence or convective turbulence. Smoke has the potential to disperse vertically in the atmosphere up to the height of the mixing height. Smoke has the potential to disperse vertically in the atmosphere up to the height of the mixing height. A low mixing height can limit how the smoke disperses and can lead to greater smoke concentrations near the ground. A low mixing height can limit how the smoke disperses and can lead to greater smoke concentrations near the ground.

42 Meteorological Parameters Ventilation Index Ventilation Index (VENT) = mixing height x transport winds Ventilation Index (VENT) = mixing height x transport winds Transport Winds - average wind speed through the mixing layer. Transport Winds - average wind speed through the mixing layer. Dispersive capability of the atmosphere given in a single number Dispersive capability of the atmosphere given in a single number Caveats: Caveats: High transport winds & low mixing height - smoke will be kept close to the ground High transport winds & low mixing height - smoke will be kept close to the ground Low transport winds & high mixing height is high - smoke will loft high into the atmosphere (good dispersion) BUT fire behavior could be erratic. Low transport winds & high mixing height is high - smoke will loft high into the atmosphere (good dispersion) BUT fire behavior could be erratic. A single national scale does not exist for VENT so investigate your local implementation. A single national scale does not exist for VENT so investigate your local implementation.

43 Meteorological Parameters Atmospheric Stability Measure of the atmosphere's tendency to encourage or deter vertical motion. Unstable Atmosphere - Vertical Mixing - Smoke not at surface - Erratic fire behavior possible Stable Atmosphere - Vertical Mixing limited - Smoke at surface (photos by Roger Ottmar, USFS)

44 Meteorological Parameters Vertical Temperature Profile Usually, atmospheric temperature decreases with altitude. Usually, atmospheric temperature decreases with altitude. Sometimes, atmospheric temperature increases with height. Sometimes, atmospheric temperature increases with height. An “Inversion” where the atmosphere is "inverted" from its usual state. An “Inversion” where the atmosphere is "inverted" from its usual state. Two Types of Inversions: Two Types of Inversions: surface surface aloft aloft Figures used by permission from Whiteman (2000).

45 Meteorological Parameters Inversions If smoke is emitted into surface inversions or is transported and trapped in the inversion then this can lead to poor air quality conditions. If smoke is emitted into surface inversions or is transported and trapped in the inversion then this can lead to poor air quality conditions. Mop-up – mitigation method. Mop-up – mitigation method. In complex terrain, burning on slopes above an inversion can keep the smoke aloft. In complex terrain, burning on slopes above an inversion can keep the smoke aloft. Persistent (multiple-day) inversions can create poor air quality conditions and burning is not recommended. Persistent (multiple-day) inversions can create poor air quality conditions and burning is not recommended. Figures used by permission from Whiteman (2000).

46 Meteorological Parameters Water Vapor Fire releases water vapor Fire releases water vapor As temperatures decrease in the evening and especially early morning hours, the water vapor will condense out of the atmosphere onto the fine particulate matter released from the fire. This can quickly create a thick white out fog (“superfog”) that pools in low-lying areas reducing visibility to near zero. As temperatures decrease in the evening and especially early morning hours, the water vapor will condense out of the atmosphere onto the fine particulate matter released from the fire. This can quickly create a thick white out fog (“superfog”) that pools in low-lying areas reducing visibility to near zero. This phenomena and has been attributed to numerous traffic accidents This phenomena and has been attributed to numerous traffic accidents

47 NWS Fire Weather Webpage Fire Weather Forecast Fire Weather Forecast Weather Planner Weather Planner Request a spot forecast Request a spot forecast Observational data Observational data

48 NWS Fire Weather Forecast Cloud Cover Cloud Cover 20 ft winds 20 ft winds Transport Winds Transport Winds Mixing Height Mixing Height Smoke Dispersion Smoke Dispersion Lightning Activity Level Lightning Activity Level Haines Index Haines Index

49 html#Smoke_Management html#Smoke_Management ODF Meteorological Support ODF Meteorological Support Seasonally: March – June September – November Western Oregon Northeastern Oregon south central Oregon Wood stove assistance for Lakeview and Klamath Falls Open burning forecast for the Willamette Valley north of Lane County when field burning not being conducted

50 Oregon Department of Agriculture Weather Center June 15 – Sept 30 June 15 – Sept 30 Daily weather forecasts and burn advisories Daily weather forecasts and burn advisories Daily s Daily s Surface & Transport Winds Surface & Transport Winds Ventilation Ventilation Temperature, RH Temperature, RH

51 Current Conditions Air Quality Index Air Quality Index Satellite data – Current Active Fires Satellite data – Current Active Fires Meteorological Observations Meteorological Observations

52 Current Air Quality Conditions Air Quality Index Air Quality Index Oregon Air Quality Monitoring Stations or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx Oregon Air Quality Monitoring Stations or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx

53 Satellite Fire Detections & Smoke Plumes NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) Satellite Fire Detections, Plume Analysis Satellite Fire Detections, Plume Analysis Current conditions Current conditions NOAA HYSPLIT Dispersion Model NOAA HYSPLIT Dispersion Model Smoke Plume Forecast Smoke Plume Forecast Based on Satellite Fire Detections Based on Satellite Fire Detections

54 Meteorological Observations Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) RAWS RAWS Mesowest Mesowest RAWS SNOTEL Airports bin/droman/mesomap.cgi?state=OR&a ddress=&type=&noho=&rawsflag=2 bin/droman/mesomap.cgi?state=OR&a ddress=&type=&noho=&rawsflag=2 bin/droman/mesomap.cgi?state=OR&a ddress=&type=&noho=&rawsflag=2 bin/droman/mesomap.cgi?state=OR&a ddress=&type=&noho=&rawsflag=2

55 BSMP 2: Monitor the effects of the fire on air quality Monitoring effects of fire on air quality Monitoring effects of fire on air quality Where does the smoke go? Where does the smoke go? How high does it go? How high does it go? Does the smoke disperse or is tight and dense? Does the smoke disperse or is tight and dense? Methods – Visual monitoring documented by: Methods – Visual monitoring documented by: notes, photographs, aircraft observations, satellite imagery, air quality monitoring data, and post- burn evaluations. notes, photographs, aircraft observations, satellite imagery, air quality monitoring data, and post- burn evaluations. Note air quality near sensitive receptors Note air quality near sensitive receptors Correlating visual range to hourly PM2.5 concentrations is also possible in dry environments (relative humidity < 65%) Correlating visual range to hourly PM2.5 concentrations is also possible in dry environments (relative humidity < 65%) US Forest Service Smoke Photo Series

56 BSMP 3: Record-keeping Keep a personal burn/smoke journal. Keep a personal burn/smoke journal. What records to keep? What records to keep? Weather (forecasted and observed) Weather (forecasted and observed) BSMPs applied BSMPs applied Fire activity (location, area burned, date, ignition time, etc.) Fire activity (location, area burned, date, ignition time, etc.) Fuels burned Fuels burned Smoke behavior & impacts (if any) Smoke behavior & impacts (if any) Assess conditions and burns that meet goals, and provide lessons learned Assess conditions and burns that meet goals, and provide lessons learned Documentation can be key if there is an air quality exceedance and the state seeks to exclude the data. This can be years later. Documentation can be key if there is an air quality exceedance and the state seeks to exclude the data. This can be years later.

57 BSMP 4: Communication – Public Notification Notify appropriate authorities (ex. air regulators, public health officials, local fire department). Notify appropriate authorities (ex. air regulators, public health officials, local fire department). Notify those potentially affected by the smoke Notify those potentially affected by the smoke If an impact occurs, prepare contingency actions to reduce exposure (ex. Mop- up, reducing area burned). If an impact occurs, prepare contingency actions to reduce exposure (ex. Mop- up, reducing area burned).

58 BSMP 5: Consider use of emission reduction techniques (ERTs) Ensure objectives are not compromised Ensure objectives are not compromised ERTs can include: ERTs can include: reducing fuel burned reducing fuel burned increasing burning efficiency increasing burning efficiency NRCS Practices considered ERTs: Brush Management, Clearing and Snagging, Firebreak, Forest Stand Improvement, Fuel Break, Prescribed Grazing, and Woody Residue Treatment. NRCS Practices considered ERTs: Brush Management, Clearing and Snagging, Firebreak, Forest Stand Improvement, Fuel Break, Prescribed Grazing, and Woody Residue Treatment.

59 BSMP 6: Share the Airshed – Coordination of Area Burning Communication among fire managers burning in the same vicinity on the same day Communication among fire managers burning in the same vicinity on the same day Coordinate and plan ignitions so as not to overwhelm the ability of the atmosphere to disperse the smoke Coordinate and plan ignitions so as not to overwhelm the ability of the atmosphere to disperse the smoke Current smoke/AQ information Current smoke/AQ information AIRNOW (http://www.airnow.gov) or from local/state air quality monitoring networks. AIRNOW (http://www.airnow.gov) or from local/state air quality monitoring networks.http://www.airnow.gov NOAA Hazard Mapping System – current satellite fire detections (http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/l and/hms.html) NOAA Hazard Mapping System – current satellite fire detections (http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/l and/hms.html)http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/l and/hms.htmlhttp://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/ml/l and/hms.html

60 Current Air Quality Conditions Air Quality Index Air Quality Index Oregon Air Quality Monitoring Stations or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx Oregon Air Quality Monitoring Stations or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx or.us/lab/aqm/rt/rtHou rlyConc.aspx

61 Satellite Fire Detections & Smoke Plumes NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) Satellite Fire Detections, Plume Analysis Satellite Fire Detections, Plume Analysis Current conditions Current conditions NOAA HYSPLIT Dispersion Model NOAA HYSPLIT Dispersion Model Smoke Plume Forecast Smoke Plume Forecast Based on Satellite Fire Detections Based on Satellite Fire Detections

62 Smoke Modeling Answer the questions – Where could my smoke go? How thick could it be? Who/what may be impacted? Answer the questions – Where could my smoke go? How thick could it be? Who/what may be impacted? Simple Smoke Screening Tool Simple Smoke Screening Tool Trajectories Trajectories Standalone Dispersion Models (ex. VSMOKE) Standalone Dispersion Models (ex. VSMOKE) Centralized web-based smoke dispersion systems (eg. BlueSky) Centralized web-based smoke dispersion systems (eg. BlueSky)

63 NOAA HYSPLIT Air Parcel Trajectories Information about where a parcel of air will travel NOAA HYSPLIT Model Plume rise simulated by release height No Chemistry, No Particle Concentration Two means to access Wildland Fire Decision Support System Air Quality Portal NOAA HYSPLIT webpage

64 WFDSS Air Quality Portal

65 David’s Burn Location 11/15/2011, 7am Ignition

66 David’s Burn Location 11/15/2011, 10am Ignition

67 NOAA HYSPLIT Trajectories Forecast and Retrospective meteorology Forecast and Retrospective meteorology 4/21/2011, 0800 PT 4/21/2011, 0800 PT aa.gov/HYSPLIT_ traj.php aa.gov/HYSPLIT_ traj.php aa.gov/HYSPLIT_ traj.php aa.gov/HYSPLIT_ traj.php

68 Trajectories with NWS Spot Weather Forecasts Trial product – Comments due 12/31/2011 Trial product – Comments due 12/31/2011 Three heights: 500m, 1500m, 3000m Three heights: 500m, 1500m, 3000m Trajectory starts at prescribed burn ignition time Trajectory starts at prescribed burn ignition time KMZ files and gif files KMZ files and gif files To request: enter “hysplit to in the remarks section of the spot weather forecast request. To request: enter “hysplit to in the remarks section of the spot weather forecast request.

69 Fuel Loading Fuel Consumption Emission Factor Emission Production Dispersion/Concentration Fire Activity Meteorology Components of Smoke Dispersion Modeling Plume Rise

70 Gaussian Plume Models

71 BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework & Playground Centralized websites under development:

72 Oregon Smoke Management Programs (SMP) Oregon Department of Environmental Quality “Burning and Smoke” webpage: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality “Burning and Smoke” webpage: Oregon Department of Forestry SMP (silvicultural burning): (“Fire in the Forest”) (51 pages) Oregon Department of Forestry SMP (silvicultural burning): (“Fire in the Forest”) (51 pages)“Fire in the Forest”) in the Forest”) Oregon Department of Agriculture SMP (field burning in the Willamette Valley): Oregon Department of Agriculture SMP (field burning in the Willamette Valley): Jefferson County SMP: Jefferson County SMP: Union County SMP: (select “Departments” then “Smoke Management”) Union County SMP: (select “Departments” then “Smoke Management”)http://www.union-county.org/ Oregon Wildfire information: Oregon Wildfire information:

73 Oregon SMP (Forestlands) Level 1 (light Green) Level 1 (light Green) Applies to: Fed forest land, Class I areas. Applies to: Fed forest land, Class I areas. Requirements: burn registration (7 days), fees, compliance with smoke management forecast instructions, reporting of accomplishments (next day). Requirements: burn registration (7 days), fees, compliance with smoke management forecast instructions, reporting of accomplishments (next day). Level 2 (Dark Green) Level 2 (Dark Green) Applies to: non-federal forestlands in eastern Oregon, all class 3 forestland in western Oregon within a forest protection district. Requirements: burn registration, reporting of accomplishments (1 wk) (51 pages) (51 pages)

74 Oregon SMP (Agriculture) Applies to: grass seed, cereal grain crops, and associated residue in the Willamette Valley. Burning prohibited in Benton, Lane & (portions of) Linn Counties Maximum acreage: 15K acres (new) Emergency purposes: 2K acres (new)

75 National Smoke Management Website Tools Tools Smoke/Weather Forecasts Smoke Modeling Smoke Monitoring Remotely Sensed Data After Action Review NEPA Regulations and Policies Regulations and Policies Emissions Emissions Training Training Publications Publications Links Links

76 NWCG Smoke Committee (SmoC) One of 14 Committees chartered under the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG) Current Members: USFS, NPS, FWS, BLM, BIA, NASF, NRCS, NACAA, TNC, DoD Products, Topics and Issues Training “Air Quality and Fire Issues” Neighborhood Fire emissions: Black Carbon, NO2, GHGs, PM2.5, Ozone precursors Smoke Monitoring Exceptional Events Federal Fire Policy

77 SmoC Subcommittees Smoke Managers Smoke Managers Training Training Online Training Online Training Smoke Assessment Smoke Assessment Technical Smoke Topics Technical Smoke Topics Smoke Management Guide Revision Smoke Management Guide Revision Smoke Monitoring Smoke Monitoring Retrospective Emission Inventories Task Team Retrospective Emission Inventories Task Team

78 Air Quality and Atmospheric Change in NRCS Four Air Quality resource concerns: Four Air Quality resource concerns: Odor Odor Particulate Matter Particulate Matter Ozone Precursors Ozone Precursors Greenhouse Gasses Greenhouse Gasses Four online courses (AgLearn): Four online courses (AgLearn): Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Air Quality, Climate Change and Energy Why Should we Care About Air Quality? Why Should we Care About Air Quality? Air Quality Resource Concerns Air Quality Resource Concerns Greenhouse Gasses and Carbon Sequestration. Greenhouse Gasses and Carbon Sequestration. AQAC website

79 Thank you! Questions, Comments, Discussion Susan O’Neill, The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or a part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. Photo courtesy Lorraine Vogt


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