3 Formatting the Works Cited You must provide complete citation information in correct MLA form for all sources from which you borrow material.Start your Works Cited list on a new page, and number it as though it were a page in your paper.Arrange entries alphabetically by the authors' last names. If no author is provided for any source, use the title to alphabetize.After the first line of an entry, indent five spaces so that the first word of the entry stands out. This is called hanging indentation.
4 FormattingYour last name should go on the far right corner of every sheet that follows with the page number. Example: Smith 8Each page should have a one-inch margin (not 1 1/2 or 2 inches!)Page 1 and all subsequent pages will have the author's last name and the page number as a header 1/2 inch from the top of the paper. The actual text will begin at the 1 inch margin.Use 10 or 12 point type and a standard font such as Times New Roman.Type on only one side of the page and double space all text (except long quotes–more details on this later.)
6 What your first page should look like… Dent 1Stu DentE_ _ _ SmithAssignment TitleDateCentered TitleThen begin writing your paper with awonderful attention getter and greatintroduction to your wonderful 7-10 pagepaper. Everything is written in Times NewRoman size 12, and everything is doubleSpaced with a 1” margin all around.headerDouble space between each line evenly—no double double spaces.What your first page should look like…
8 Introducing your sources The first time you cite a source, tell us who it is and why he/she is credible…Anne Willis, literary critic, writes that “blah blah blah” (333).Lorraine Hansberry, author of Raisin in the Sun, wrote the play based on her real life experience and shares that” blah, blah, blah” (41).However, if you start quoting someone else for a while and then go back to someone you quoted at the beginning, make it clear in your transitions by using the author’s name again. i.e. Leder, however, suggests that while Madonna is considered…..Music: “First Time” song
9 How do you cite your source How do you cite your source* in the paper and how does this tie into the Works Cited?Your in-text citation will correspond with an entry in your Works Cited page*Sources, including novels, plays, articles, online material, criticism, etc. may be referred to as either “work(s)” or text(s)”In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what's known as parenthetical citation. Immediately following a quotation from a source or a paraphrase of a source's ideas, you place the authors name followed by a space and the relevant page number(s).Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).The citation, Burke 3, tells readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 3 of a work by an author named Burke. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Burke, they would find the full bibliography.When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name.To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:...as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work, or italicize or underline it if it's a longer work.it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
10 A single author of one text Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays onLife, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: University of California P, 1966.
11 Multiple authors of one text In the event the quote comes from a book with 2 authors, list both in parenthesis like this (Author1 and Author2 10).With 3 authors it will be (Author1, Author2, and Author3 10).Beyond 3 authors, one may name them all, or name the first followed by the abbreviation for "and others" et al. (Author1 et al. 10). Add arrows to ‘point’ at ands, commas, and et al
12 No author of one textAdd in-text and works cited of authorless text
13 Two texts by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).ADD WORKS CITED EXAMPLE WITH TWO WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR
14 Two authors -- of different texts --with the same last name: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).ADD WORKS CITED EXAMPLE WITH TWO AUTHORSWhatcha talkin’ bout Willis?
15 A tricky one:Text found in an anthology or edited collection:For an essay, short story, or other document included in an anthology or edited collection, use the name of the author of the text, not the editor of the anthology or collection, but use the page numbers from the anthology or collection.(fyi-picture of central park)ADD Works Cited Example to show anthology so we can ask kids what they’d pull for the quote
16 Text found in an anthology or edited collection: Lawrence Rosenfield analyzes the way in which New York’s Central Park held a socializing function for nineteenth-century residents similar to that of traditional republican civic oratory (222).Add Works Cited example for anthology
18 …Periods of Ellipses…In the event one doesn't wish to use a whole quote, one may use an ellipsis (...) to indicate that text is missing.Example:In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale ... and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
19 Punctuating your quotes Please notice that there is no punctuation inside the parenthesis, and the closing punctuation from the sentence is placed after the parenthesis.Add Examples of properly punctuated quotes
20 Quote-within-a-quote In the event there is a quote inside your quote, use a single quotation mark for the interior quote, but keep the double exterior quotation marks to show entire excerpt .A teacher read this to her students, “‘If you subscribe to the summer Weekly Reader you will receive ten issues.’ One of her students waited all summer for a pair of tennis shoes’’ (Lederer 147).Citing Multiple Works by the Same AuthorIf you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, follwed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers:Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).
21 Whatcha need to know about quotes: In the event of a long quote–more than 4 lines–the writer must set it off by indenting 10 spaces. This will not need quotation marks.Laughter is also an elixir for the mind. Tests administered by Swedish psychologist Lars Ljungdahl before and after humor therapy reveal a reduction of stress and depression and a heightened sense of mental well being and creativity (Lederer 10).Important: Don’t use more than a couple of long quotes in your paper.Use long quotes SPARINGLY! Consider summarizing long quotes and then “quoting” a portion.People who use lots of long quotes look like they’re trying to fill up space!Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
22 Quotes and punctuation According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.According to Foulkes‘ study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there/ That's all I remember" (11-12).Short QuotationsTo indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks and incorporate it into your text. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference in the works-cited list. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
24 ClarityFuture use: If you mention an author's name in the text later, only give the page number in the parenthesis.Ex 1: If, in one paragraph, you include multiple quotes from the same author are continuing to quote from one author "She's a real Pre-Madonna" (152).EDIT DOWN. However, if you start quoting someone else for a while and then go back to someone you quoted at the beginning, make it clear in your transitions by using the author’s name again. i.e. Leder, however, suggests that while Madonna is considered…..
25 Variety Here are three ways to include A parenthetical citation: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).Parenthetical CitationsMLA format follows the author-page method of citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in your works cited list (see Your Works Cited Page, below).
26 Historical Present Tense When writing a literary analysis paper, use the present tense to describe events that occur in your book. The logic is that every time someone reads a piece of literature, it is a new experience for each reader.example from page 374 of our textbook:Past tense: Macbeth saw a dagger, which was either a hallucination caused by sleep deprivation or an example of supernatural powers at work.Present tense: Macbeth sees a dagger floating in the air, which is either a hallucination….
27 So what’s the order? Paper (page 1) Works cited page (page?) *Your teacher may have additional requirements.The background on the version is black, but for printing I made it white.
29 Paragraph TipsDo not begin or end a paragraph with a quote unless it is the intro or conclusionAlways introduce the quote in some way, as well as connect it to your topic sentence.Topic sentences should all connect to your thesis somehow.Every paragraph should have topic sentencesEvery paragraph should transition smoothly from paragraph to paragraph
30 Up for a challenge? Reprinted article: Hunt, Tim. "The Misreading of Kerouac." Review of Contemporary Fiction 3.2 (1983): Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. C. Riley. Vol. 61. Detroit: Gale,Website:Author/Editor. Name of site. Date or last update. Name of any organization associated with this site. Access Date. <URL>.is a great source (color coded)I got the gale citation info off fhs website
31 Why cite your sources? (So you don’t plagiarize!) Plagiarism includes the following:not citing sources of information or ideas I used that belong to someone elsesummarizing ideas or information that belong to someone else and failing to cite the original sourcenot putting quotation marks around words that are not mine even though I cite the sourcequoting material but failing to cite the sourcegetting a paper or part of a paper off the internet and claiming it is my owngetting a paper or part of a paper from another student and claiming it is my own
32 Now you know everything you need to write a great research paper. calvogallery.htmlWow! What a photo!